ARTIKEL - Oktober 2014, Vol.11, No.02
Batasan indeks massa tubuh dan lingkar perut diabetesi di Indonesia untuk prediksi abnormalitas kadar HDL-kolesterol dan tekanan darah
Nazarina1, Sri Prihartini1, Rika Rachmawati1
Background : According to National Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas) 2007 and 2013 in Indonesia, diabetes prevalence had been increasing from 1,1% to 1,5%. Diabetic tends to have obesity related to abnormal blood lipid level and high blood pressure which lead to some complications such as cardiovascular diseases and hypertention. Therefore early prevention of complications is needed.
Objective : This study was to identify body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) cut-off point in Indonesian diabetic as predictor of lipid profi le and high blood pressure abnormality.
Method : Crossectional study using secondary data, Riskesdas 2007. Subjects in this study were 615 diabetics who admitted been diagnosed as diabetes by physicians and/or had oral glucose test result > 200 mg%. Data that had been analyzed were lipid profi le (total cholesterol, LDL-chol, HDL-chol) and systolic-diastolic blood pressure, BMI (kg/cm2), WC (cm), life style, and subject’s characteristic. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) is used to identify BMI and WC cut-off point for predicting lipid profi le and blood pressure abnormality.
Result : On the average, subjects have high blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Both IMT and LP are able to predict high blood pressure and low HDL-chol signifi cantly (AUC > 59; all p>0,05). BMI=23 kg/cm2 can predict low HDl-chol (Se=63,3%; Sp=54,0%; p=0,04), high systolic (Se=68,3%; Sp=60,6%; p=0,000) and diastolic (Se=68,3%; Sp=60,6%; p=0,000) blood pressure in men, whereas in women can predict only low HDL-chol (Se=72,3%; Sp=47,8%; p=0,000). LP=80 cm can screen high systolic (Se=73,8%; Sp=63,6%; p=0,000) and diastolic (Se=72,4%; Sp=55,3%; p=0,000) blood pressure in men and high systolic blood pressure in women (Se=71,5%; Sp=52,6%; p=0,000). However, to predict low HDL-chol in women, cut-off point of LP is 78 cm (Se=74,2%; Sp=41,5%; p=0,003).
Conclusion : Although BMI and LP can be used to predict high blood pressure and low HDL-chol, however both measures have different function when they are applied in both gender. To predict low HDL-chol in men and women, BMI=23 kg/cm2 can be used, and LP=80 cm can be applied to screen high systolic blood pressure in both gender. Nevertheless, more research is needed to show the consistency of these results, such as using better study design and considering for confounding variables (ethnic, diabetes duration, life style, hypertension, and diabetes medicine).
Key words : diabetes, body mass index, waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure
1 Korespondensi : Pusat Teknologi Terapan Kesehatan dan Epidemiologi Klinik, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Kementerian Kesehatan-Bogor- Indonesia, Jl. DR. Semeru No.63, Bogor 16112, e-mail:
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Pengaruh pemberian makanan tambahan (PMT) pada ibu hamil terhadap berat lahir bayi
Hana Shafi yyah Zulaidah1, Istiti Kandarina2, Mohammad Hakimi1
Background : Anemia causes fetal growth disorders that affect birth weight. Antenatal care (ANC) coverage and provision of high Fe if not followed by a decrease in the incidence of anemia can result indirectly in the risk of low birth weight. Supplementary feeding is expected to resolve the issue.
Objective : o assess the effect of supplementary feeding on third trimester of pregnancy on birth weight.
Method : This was a quantitative study with a study design of quasi-experiment and non-equivalent control group. The given intervention was fi sh-processed feeding for 30 days. The study population were pregnant women in the third trimester in all health centers in the City of Yogyakarta and the samples were 104 pregnant women in some health centers with convenience sampling technique. The subjects were divided into two, namely the treatment group (PMT) and the comparison group (non PMT). Birth weight was weighed immediately after the baby was born. Statistical analysis used t-test and logistic regression.
Result : The mean birth weight of infants in the treatment group and the comparison group was 3248 g and 2974 g, respectively, so that the difference in the mean birth weight of both groups was 274 g (p=0.0002; 95%C:131-416). Thus, supplementary feeding was shown signifi cantly affect the birth weight. The extraneous variables that signifi cantly infl uenced birth weight were pregnancy interval. Other extraneous variables were age, mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC), education, occupation, economic status, parity, protein intake, compliance of Fe tablet intake, antenatal care, gestational age at delivery and anemia status were not proven statistically signifi cant to affect birth weight.
Conclusion : Supplementary feeding effect on birth weight.
Key words : supplementary feeding, anemia, pregnant women, birth weight
1 Korespondensi : Minat Kesehatan Ibu dan Anak-Kesehatan Reproduksi (KIA-KR), Program Studi S2 Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Gajah Mada, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, e-mail: shafi
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Prevalensi kasus dehidrasi pada mahasiswa Universitas Gadjah Mada
Mirza Hapsari Sakti Titis Penggalih1, Zaenal Mutaqien Sofro2, Eka Roshifi ta Rizqi1, Yuniko Fajri1
Background : Involuntary dehydration can lead to body function of disturbances. Orthostatic measurements were performed to determine the involuntary dehydration caused by orthostatic hypotension. Dehydration is also infl uenced by the high level of activity and ambient temperature without suffi cient fl uid intake. Students are prone to dehydration due to their activity, they have to be well hydrated to achieve their academic and non academic performances.
Objective : To determine the prevalence of dehydration among students of Gadjah Mada University.
Method : An observasional study with cross sectional design were conducted and involved 274 student of Gadjah Mada University. Orthostatic measurement and interview of their activity and smoking habit were performed on all subjects.
Result : The prevalence of dehydration were 60.9%. Type of activity and smoking habit did not effect the hydration status.
Conclusion : Dehydration prevalence rate is still high on the students. As almost all students are dehydrated, then the factors that should be able to distinguish the condition of dehydration such as type of activity and smoking habit, seems to give no effect in this study.
Key words : dehydration, orthostatic, students
1 Korespondensi : Program Studi S1 Gizi Kesehatan, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako Sekip Utara Yogyakarta, 55281, Telp/ Fax 0274-547775, e-mail:
2 Bagian Fisiologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako Sekip Utara Yogyakarta, 55281
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Risk factors of low peak bone mass in Indonesian women
Ray Sugianto1, Johana Titus1, Minarma Siagian2
Background : Osteoporosis occurred in 64% of Indonesian women aged 60-64 years. Risk of osteoporosis can be reduced by achieving optimal peak bone mass in ages 25-32 years. However, 33.4% women had low peak bone mass (LPBM).
Objective : We aimed to develop a tool to identify women at risk of developing LPBM in order to ameliorate this situation. Some risk/protective factors were explored in a case-control study.
Method : We recruited 25 cases, those with LPBM (T-score <1) according to peripheral bone densitometry and 25 controls from Cengkareng District, West Jakarta. They were assessed using questionnaires to explore their historical intake of calcium, tea/coffee, and weight-bearing activity. We also measured BMI and body composition. Parameters among case and control groups were analyzed using independent T-test or Mann-Whitney, and odds ratio in relation to peak bone mass was also computed.
Result : Between cases and controls, there were no differences observed in BMI, body composition, weight-bearing activity, and historical tea/coffee consumption. Calcium intake from sources other than milk and its derivatives were also found not to differ. Historical calcium index (HCI), measuring weekly calcium intake since childhood, was found lower in cases (median=160 vs 965; p=0.001). HCI cut-off analysis found that the values of 300 and 1000 yielded good specifi city (80%) and sensitivity (92%) for LPBM. OR analysis identifi ed those with HCI <1000 (OR=0.61; 95% CI: 2.05?54.95) as at moderate risk of developing LPBM, and HCI ? 300 as at higher risk.
Conclusion : We concluded that, as low HCI was the risk factor for developing LPBM, calculation of HCI should be done to earlier identify women at risk, thus prompting earlier nutrition and life-style intervention to prevent the occurrence of LPBM and future osteoporosis.
Key words : women, peak bone mass, calcium intake, body composition, osteoporosis, prevention
1 Korespondensi : Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Salemba Raya No.6, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia, e-mail: raysugi@ gmail.com
2 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Salemba Raya No.6, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia
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Durasi tidur, asupan energi, dan aktivitas fi sik dengan kejadian obesitas pada tenaga kesehatan puskesmas
Ramadhaniah1, Madarina Julia2, Emy Huriyati3
Background : The prevalence of obesity among adults has increased globally in both developed and developing countries, including Indonesia. Obesity occurs because of imbalance of energy intake and output in the long term and it can also be seen by calculating the value of the body mass index (BMI). The main risk factors are the reduction in the duration of sleep that causes increased energy intake and reduced physical activity, in addition to other factors such as gender, income, pregnancy, smoking and alcohol, health conditions, genetics, and psychology.
Objective : To determine the relationship between sleep duration, energy intake and physical activity with obesity on health centers’ workers of Pidie Jaya District in Aceh Province.
Method : This study was an observational study with a cross sectional design. The research was conducted on health workers in 11 health centers in Pidie Jaya District of Aceh Province who met inclusion and exclusion criteria. The subjects were 200 people selected using simple random sampling. Obesity was assessed by BMI (weight in kg/height in m). Duration of sleep and physical activity were collected with a form of activity recall and energy intake with a food recall. Data were analyzed by Chi-Square test and multiple logistic regression.
Result : There was a relationship between sleep duration and obesity with an OR value of 2.59; there was a relationship between energy intake and obesity (OR=2.55); and there was a relationship between physical activity and obesity (OR=2.47).
Conclusion : Lack of sleep duration, high energy intake and low physical activity increased the risk of obesity on health centers’ workers in Pidie Jaya District of Aceh Province.
Key words : health centers’ workers, obesity, sleep duration, energy intake, physical activity
1 Korespondensi : Minat Gizi dan Kesehatan, Program Studi S2 Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta, e-mail:
2 Bagian Ilmu Kesehatan Anak Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Dr. Sardjito/ Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta, e-mail: madarinajulia@yahoo. com
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