ARTIKEL - Juli 2013, Vol.10, No.01
Penambahan kelapa (Cocos nucifera) dan kacang tolo (Vignaunguiculata) terhadap nilai indeks glikemik singkong (Manihotutilissima)
Rini Astuti1, Heni Hendriyani2, Muflihah Isnawati2
Background : The glycemic index (GI) is a notion that defences the glycaemic potency of foods. Foods with low GI will be digested and turned into glucose gradually and slowly. As a result blood glucose peak will not be so high and its fl uctuation relatively in short time. Although cassava is a good source of carbohydrate, it has a high GI and low protein. Its GI factor needs to be reduced by any efforts to make it a healthy alternative food in spite of rice.
Objective : To analize the effect of adding coconut and black-eyed pea to the GI factor of cassava.
Method : The study used experimental observation design. There were three groups of treatment with 9 persons in each goup. After fasting for 10 hours, blood glucose were tested and 50 g of true glucose were given. Blood glucose of the subjects were tested again after 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes giving true glucose. Next on the seventh day, they were given boiled cassava, cassava with coconut (sawut) and cassava with black-eyed pea (gintul). After which their blood glucose were also tested.
Result : GI factor of steam cassava, shredded cassava and shredded cassava with black-eyed pea (gintul) was 100,40; 70,90; and 61,88; respectively. There was a signifi cant difference of GI level between three products (p=0,031).
Conclusion : Food processing by adding coconut and black-eyed pea has effect in reducing the GI level of cassava.
Key words : diabetes mellitus, glycaemic index, steam cassava, shredded cassava
1 Korespondensi : Rumah Sakit Hermina Pandanaran Semarang, Jl. Pandanaran 24, Semarang, e-mail:
2Jurusan Gizi Politeknik Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan Semarang, Jl. Wolter Moginsidi 115, Semarang
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Status gizi sebagai faktor prognosis penderita karsinoma endometrium
Heru Pradjatmo1, Deyna Primavita Pahlevi1
Background : In Indonesia, endometrial cancer is the third gynaecologic cancer after cervical and ovarian cancers. Various factors affect the survival of the patients, however, which factors affect the survival of endometrial carcinoma patients in Dr. Sardjito Hospital remain unclear. A research is therefore needed in order to determine the survival and the prognostic factors.
Objective : To investigate the prognostic factors that affect the survival of endometrial carcinoma patients who had been admitted to Dr. Sardjito Hospital.
Method : The study design was retrospective cohort. The subjects were patients with endometrial carcinoma who were treated in Dr. Sardjito Hospital from 1st of January 2006 until 31st of December 2011. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to analyze several factors that infl uenced the survival of the patients. The differences of survival were analyzed with log rank test while the prognostic factors infl uencing the survival were analyzed using Cox regression.
Result : 68 endometrial carcinoma patients were recruited as the subjects for the study. The median survival of endometrial carcinoma patients 52 months for those on early stage and 17 months on advanced stage (p<0.01). The prognostic factors affecting survival that has been found statistically and clinically signifi cant was the stage of the disease (p=0.002; HR=6.175; 95% CI=1.1980 to 19.25). Meanwhile, the nutritional status of patients with low, normal, and high BMIs score showed increased survival rate as indicated by the HR values of 1; 0.768; and 0.311 respectively.
Conclusion : The prognostic factor that was clinically and statistically signifi cant infl uenced the survival was the stage of the disease, while the nutritional status of patients was found clinically signifi cant as the prognostic survival of the patients.
Key words : endometrial carcinoma, nutritional status, survival rate, prognostic factors, stage of disease
1 Korespondensi: Bagian Obstetri dan Ginekologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada/Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Dr. Sardjito, Jl. Kesehatan no 1, Sekip, Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta 55284, e-mail: pradjatmo@ yahoo.com
Perbedaan arus puncak ekspirasi antara anak asma dengan obesitas dan anak asma tanpa obesitas
Nurul Hadi1, Madarina Julia1, Roni Naning1
Obesity in children is associated with impairment of pulmonary function and increased risk of asthma. Obesity in asthmatic children may reduce lung function, that can be assessed by peak fl ow meter, a practical and an inexpensive tool.
Objective : To compare the peak expiratory fl ow (PEF) between obese and non-obese asthmatic children.
Method : We conducted a cross sectional study in Yogyakarta during March 2010-September 2012. Fifty obese asthmatic patients and 50 non obese asthmatic control subjects participated in this study. Inclusion criteria were asthmatic patient, according to Pedoman Nasional Asma Anak (PNAA), and 6-18 years of age. Exclusion criteria were asthmatic attack, respiratory disease, heart disease and congenital chest malformation. Obesity is defi ned as body mass index (BMI) for age more than +3 SD WHO growth chart standards BMI for age 2007 z-score. Z-score is calculated with WHO AnthroPlus for Personal Computers. Data PEF is taken with electrical peak fl ow meter when the patient was not suffering from asthma attack. Normal PEF was defi ned as PEF >80% average (predicted) value for height.
Result : The mean of age of asthmatic children in this study was 9.38 years and 9.50 years for non obese and obese respectively. The PFR was not different between obese asthmatic children and non obese asthmatic children (p=0,83). Pearson correlation of PFR and z-score BMI for age was positive weak correlation (r=0.12). There was signifi cant difference of PFR between z-score BMI for age <3,20 and z-score BMI for age >3.20 (p=0.03). Signifi cant difference of PFR also appears in duration of illness (p<0.001).
Conclusion : There is no PFR difference between obese asthmatic children and non-obese asthmatic children. The difference of PFR emerges when statistic analysis performed using z-score BMI >3.20.
Key words: peak fl ow rate, obesity, asthma, children
Perbedaan asupan mikronutrien pada lansia penderita hipertensi esensial yang overweight dan tidak overweight
Catur Saptaning Wilujeng1, Wasilah Rochmah2, Susetyowati3
Background : Hypertension in overweight elderly is a crucial problem considering that its pathogenesis, disease pattern and management are not entirely the same with hypertension in young adults. Hypertension in overweight elderly requires particular attention because it is closely associated with overall management (medical and nutritional).
Objective : To study different intake of micronutrients, i.e. natrium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) in overweight and non overweight elderly with essential hypertension at Griya Sehat Lansia (GSL) Yogyakarta.
Method : The study was analytical with case control study design. Samples were as many as 138 elderly of 60-75 years old taken using multistage sampling technique. Data of intake Na, K, Ca, Mg were obtained through semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); essential hypertension through assessment of blood pressure using sphygmomanometer; overweight and non overweight status through body mass index (BMI), BMI for overweight was 23-24.9 kg/m2 and non-overweight was 18.50-22.99 kg/m2. Statistical analysis used paired t test, Chi-Square and logistic regression.
Result : There were differences in intake of Na, K, Ca, and Mg between overweight and non overweight elderly (p<0.05). There were signifi cant association (p<0.05) between intake of Na, K, Ca, and Mg of overweight and non overweight elderly with essential hypertension, with OR 5.271; 6.813; 3.398 and 3.444. Intake of Na and K were variables most signifi cantly associated with overweight and non overweight elderly with essential hypertension (p<0.05).
Conclusion : There were signifi cant differences in intake of micronutrients (Na, K, Ca, Mg) between overweight and non overweight elderly with essential hypertension at GSL Yogyakarta.
Key words : micronutrients, essential hypertension, elderly, overweight
1 Korespondensi: Program Studi Gizi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya Malang, Jl. Veteran Malang, Jawa Timur, e-mail:
2 Klinik Pelayanan Kesehatan Khusus Lansia Griya Sehat Lansia Yogyakarta, Jl. Parangtritis No. 132-134, Yogyakarta
Jumlah konsumsi dan metode memasak ikan terhadap kejadian dislipidemia
Farida Nailufar1, Martalena Br Purba2, Emy Huriyati3
Background : Some studies state that fi sh consumption of at least 200-400 g/week can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fi sh have cardioprotective effects. However, the cardiac effect of fi sh consumption are not primarily related to the amount of fi sh consumed but also its cooking method. The cooking method (eg, frying) may alter the fatty acid content of a fi sh meal by absorbing fatty acids from cooking oils and adding trans fatty acids. Non-fried fi sh consumption (eg, boiled/steamed) was associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease but fried fi sh was not.
Objective : To identify the quantity of fi sh consumed and the cooking method with the incidence of dyslipidemia.
Methods : The study was observational with case control design in patients that checked themselves at Prodia laboratory of Samarinda. Respondents consisted of 152 patients, comprising 76 cases and 76 control. Cases were patients with dyslipidemia and control were those without dyslipidemia matched according to gender and age. Analysis used Chi-Square statistical test at confi dence interval 95%.
Result : There was signifi cant difference in average of fi sh consumed between case and control group (164.86+63.61 g vs 218.55+62.21 g; p<0.05). There was also signifi cant difference (p<0.05) between case and control group in variables of body mass index (24.53+2.4 kg/m2 vs 23.26+1.6 kg/m2); intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (34.58+5.82 g vs 28.27+5.4 g); simple carbohydrate (63.86+13.67 g vs 49.35+11.81 g); fruit and vegetable (42.61+20.17 g vs 53.48+23.47 g); and waist circumference (88.88+9.08 cm vs 86.21+7.8 cm). In the fi nal multivariate analysis, quantity of fi sh consumed has no infl uences with dyslipidemia (p>0,05), but the infl uence is in the cooking method process (OR=10,84; p<0,05).
Conclusion : There was no infl uence between quantity of fi sh consumption. Risk for the prevalence of dyslipidemia was 10,84 times greater in the subject who the cooking method does not suitable the recommendation.
Key words : fi sh, consumption, omega 3, cooking method, dyslipidemia
1 Politeknik Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan Kalimantan Timur, Jl. Woltermongonsidi No. 38, Samarinda, e-mail:
Pemberian makanan enteral berformulasi bahan pangan lokal terhadap kadar zat besi dan hemoglobin pada tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus)
Dini Ariani1, Mukhamad Angwar1, Yuniar Khasanah11, Titin Nuraeni1
Background : Enteral nutrition is nutrition used to fulfi ll the needs of nutrition entirely and as the suplement for malnutrition patient. In a certain condition of patient, this nutrition is usually given in the form of liquid. Local material foods such as tempe, rice, mung bean, and ganyong have adequate nutrition, therefore they are suitable for being used as main raw materials in the making of enteral nutrition.
Objectives : To know the infl uence of feeding enteral nutrition formulated with local food material toward malnutritious white rats (Rattus norvegicus) of which the parameters are iron (Fe), haemoglobin (Hb) level and weight.
Methods : This research used Completely Random Design (CRD). Twenty seven of malnutritious male white rats were devided into 3 groups of treatment with 9 repetition for each groups of the treatment. Group A was given enteral nutrition diet of formula A (tempe, rice, and mung bean as the main raw material), group B was given enteral nutrition diet of formula B (tempe, rice, mung bean, and ganyong as the main raw material), and group C (as the positive control) was given commercial enteral nutrition. The daily giving of enteral nutrition is 20 g/day during 30 days. The analysis of Fe and Hb level and the measurement of weight fi rstly was done before the treatment is given. The next measurement was conducted in 15th day and 31st day. Statistical analysis used ANAVA test dan DMRT of signifi cance 5%.
Results : The result showed that the treatment of the enteral nutrition feeding of formula B was more optimal than formula A in terms of the way to increase the level of Hb and Fe. Those two components will give positive effect toward the increasing of the weight of malnutritious white rats (Rattus norvegicus).
Conclusion : The enteral nutrition of formula B is more proper to be developed as the main material of making enteral food in order to treat the malnutrition.
Key words enteral nutrition, malnutrition, local food material, haemoglobin, iron