ARTIKEL - Juli 2012, Vol.9, No.1
Faktor risiko obesitas pada ibu rumah tangga miskin
Digna Niken Purwaningrum1, Hamam Hadi2, I Made Alit Gunawan3
Background : Food insecurity was associated with allocation of income for consumption of energy-dense foods that may cause obesity amongst poor family. In addition, low physical activity may lead to obesity, particularly among individual living in disadvantaged situation.
Objective : To identify the risk factors of obesity among poor housewives in Yogyakarta.
Method : This was a case control study, case group was obese housewives and the control group was non obese housewives. The locations of the study were Bumijo and Pringgokusuman which have high population density. The samples were taken purposively. Each groups consisted of 70 housewives (1:1) and were matched according to age. Mc.Nemar test and conditional logistic regression were used to identify the risk factors of obesity.
Result : There were no signifi cant differences in characteristics between the two groups. Food insecurity reached 91,43% in the control group, while the proportion of excessive energy intake in the case group was higher than in control group(37.86% Vs 24.29%). Excessive fat intake in the case group was found in 30% subjects, compared to 28.57% in the control group. Low physical activity was found in 40% of subjects in the case group, and 10% of subjects in the control group. The result of Mc.Nemar test showed that food insecurity, energy and fat intake were not signifi cantly associated with obesity (p>0.05). While physical activity was associated with obesity (p=0.0001). The result of conditional logistic regression revealed that physical activity was the dominant risk factor for obesity among poor housewives (R2=0.1916).
Conclusion : Food security status was not a risk factor for obesity among poor housewives. Energy intake and fat intake contributed to the prevalence of obesity though the infl uence was weaker than physical activity.
Key words : risk factor, obesity, poor housewives, physical activity
1 Pusat Kebijakan dan Manajemen Kesehatan (PKMK), Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada, Gd. IKM Baru Lt.2 (Sayap Utara), Jl. Farmako Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, e-mail:
3 Jurusan Gizi, Politeknik Kesehatan Kemenkes Yogyakarta, Jl. Tata Bumi No. 3 Banyuraden, Gamping, Sleman, Yogyakarta
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Efek asupan vitamin D terhadap tekanan darah sistolik tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus)
Dessy Hermawan1, Sri Kadarsih2, Sunarti3, Indwiani Astuti4, Zaenal Arifi Nang Agus3
Background : Hypertension still became potential life threatening disease for human life. The prevalence of hypertension was high and tends to increase. Previous study suggested that there was a linier rise in blood pressure at increasing distances from the equator. More recent study indicated that vitamin D insuffi ciency may be associated with elevated blood pressure.
Objective : To investigate the effect of vitamin D intake on blood pressure.
Method : This was an experimental study with pre-post test group design. The subjects were 20 male Rattus norvegicus aged 8 weeks. Subjects were divided into 5 groups and each groups received treatment as follow: lived in dark cage and consumed vitamin D free diet for 1 – 13 days, then moved to normal cage (dark-light period) and given vitamin D per-oral of 0.25 ?g/kg BW for 1 – 5 days. Data of systolic blood pressure was collected and analyzed with paired t test.
Result : The absence of vitamin D in diet caused a signifi cant increase in systolic blood pressure (p=0.01) after 7 days of treatment in dark cage. While oral vitamin D supplementation of 0.25 ?g/kg BW caused a signifi cant decline of systolic blood pressure since the fi rst day of vitamin D supplementation and the result appeared stronger after 4 days of treatment (p=0.001).
Conclusion : Vitamin D intake had a strong infl uence on systolic blood pressure
Key words : hypertension, vitamin D, systolic blood pressure
1 Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Malahayati, Jl. Pramuka No. 27, Kemiling, Bandar Lampung, Telp (0721) 271114, e-mail:
2 Bagian Fisiologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281
4 Bagian Farmakologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281
Pangan yang difortifikasi zat gizi mikro pada ibu hamil meningkatkan perkembangan motorik bayi
Bernatal Saragih1, Hidayat Syarief2, Hadi Riyadi2, Amini Nasoetion2
Background : Many factors infl uence the growth and development of an infant but nutrition was undeniably one of the most important factors. One way to improve the nutritional status of infants was by providing supplementary foods fortifi ed with multiple micronutrients to mothers during pregnancy. Nutritional interventions during pregnancy provided better nutrient reserves for mothers and fetus.
Objective : To analyze the impact of multi micronutrient-fortifi ed supplementary foods provision in pregnant mothers on motor development and anemia status of infants in three sub-districts of Bogor District namely: Leuwiliang, Leuwisadeng and Ciampea.
Method : A total of 120 infants were followed up in a prospective cohort study. The subjects were divided into three groups, i.e: 40 infants in fortifi ed group (pregnant mothers received supplementary foods (vermicelli, milk and biscuit) fortifi ed with multi-nutrients i.e. iron, iodine, zinc, folic acid, vitamin C and vitamin A), 40 infants in non-fortifi ed groups (pregnant mothers received non fortifi ed foods) and 40 infants in the control groups (pregnant mothers did not receive any supplementary foods). Motor development was measured by methods developed by the Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia. Hb was measured by Cyanmethemoglobin method. Ancova and linear logistic regression were used to analyze the data.
Result : Provision of multi micronutrient-fortifi ed supplementary foods in pregnant mothers substantially improves infant’s motor development (77% better than other groups). In addition, supplementation of multi micronutrient-fortifi ed foods in pregnant mothers reduced the rate of hemoglobin and hematocrit decline in infants up to the age of 6 months. There were no infants aged 6 months with Hb < 90 g / L in the fortifi ed group, while in the non-fortifi ed group and control group the prevalence of anemia was 8.3% and 11.11%, respectively.
Conclusion : Provision of multi micronutrient-fortifi ed supplementary foods in pregnant mothers improved infant’s motor development.
Key words: multi micronutrients, pregnancy, infant, motor development, anemia
1 Program Studi Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Mulawarman, Jl. Pasir Balengkong Kampus Gunung Kelua, Samarinda 75119, e-mail:
2 Departemen Gizi Masyarakat, Fakultas Ekologi Manusia Institut Pertanian Bogor, Jl. Lingkar Kampus, Kampus IPB Dramaga Bogor 16680
Efek F100 dan formula tepung tempe terhadap kadar serum Fe dan hemoglobin pada anak gizi kurang
Iva Tsalissavrina1, Endy Paryanto Prawirohartono2, Lily Arsanti Lestari3
Background : Protein energy defi ciency is a major public health problem in Indonesia. WHO has recommended F100 made from skim milk for undernourished patient. Alternative formulas have been developed using other nutritious foods that are cheaper, easily accessible and can be used for children with lactose intolerance such as tempe fl our.
Objective : To investigate the effect of F100 and tempe fl our formula supplementation on serum Fe and hemoglobin (Hb) levels of undernourished child.
Method : This was an experimental study with randomized controlled clinical trial design and purposive sampling method. Subjects of the study were undernourished patients aged 1-10 years hospitalized at Dr. Saiful Anwar Hospital Malang. Sample consisted of 30 patients divided into 2 groups; group 1 supplemented with F100 and group 2 with tempe fl our formula. Hb level was assessed by cyanmethemoglobin and serum Fe level by colorimetric method. Dietary intake data was collected by visual comstock and food recall. Data were analyzed by chi square, unpaired t-test and double linear regression.
Result : Statistical analysis showed that there were no signifi cant differences in Hb (p=0.139) and serum Fe levels (p=0.313) between both groups after treatment. Intake data indicated that there was a signifi cant disparity in protein (p=0.019) and Fe intake (p=0.006) between the two groups, whereas energy, fat and carbohydrate intake showed no signifi cant differences. Lastly, the association between energy and nutrient intake with serum Fe and Hb levels was not signifi cant and the correlation was weak (r<1).
Conclusion : There were no signifi cant differences in hemoglobin and serum Fe levels between F100 group and tempe fl our formula group, but there was a signifi cant difference in protein and Fe intake.
Key words : F100, tempe fl our, Fe serum, hemoglobin, undernourished patients
1 Program Studi Gizi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya Malang, Jl. Veteran Malang, Jawa Timur, e-mail:
3 Program Studi Gizi Kesehatan, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, e-mail: santi_wap@ yahoo.com
Suplementasi multi mikronutrien dibandingkan Fe-asam folat terhadap kadar hemoglobin dan berat badan ibu hamil anemia
Herta Masthalina1, Mohammad Hakimi2, Siti Helmyati3
Background : As a part of global strategy to prevent micronutrient defi ciency in pregnant mothers, UNICEF recommends the use of multi-micronutrients supplements as an initial program in developing countries. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation on Hb level and weight gain of anemic pregnant women in Lombok Tengah District.
Objective : To investigate the effect of multi-micronutrient compared to Fe – folic acid supplementation on Hb level and weight gain of anemic pregnant mothers.
Methods : This was a quasi-experimental study with non equivalent control group design. Subjects in the intervention group were given multi-micronutrient supplements provided by UNICEF, whereas subjects in the control group were given Fe – folic acid supplements. The supplements were given daily to the two groups for 91 days. Hb level and weight were measured before and after intervention.
Result : Statistical analysis showed no signifi cant differences (p=0.96) in Hb level and weight gain (p=0.454) between the two groups. The increase of Hb level and weight in the intervention group vs control group were 0,53+0,95 g/dL vs 0,89+1,15 g/dL and 4,89+2,71 kg vs 4,32+1,75 kg, respectively.
Conclusion : There were no signifi cant differences in Hb level and weight gain between pregnant mothers consuming multi-micronutrient supplements compared to those consuming Fe – folic acid supplements.
Key words : multimicronutrients, Fe-Folic acid, Hb level, weight increase, anemic pregnant mothers
1 Jurusan Gizi Poltekkes Kemenkes Mataram, Jl. Praburangkasari Dasan Cermen, Mataram, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Telp (0370)633837, e-mail:
2 Bagian Obstetri dan Ginekologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universtas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako Sekip Utara Yogyakarta 55821
3 Program Studi Gizi Kesehatan, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara Yogyakarta 55821, e-mail: siti_helmyati@ yahoo.com
Efek ekstrak teh hijau (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze var. assamica) terhadap berat badan dan kadar malondialdehid wanita overweight
Alpha Olivia Hidayati1, Wiryatun Lestariana2, Emy Huriyati3
Background : Overweight and obesity were risk factors of various degenerative diseases. Green tea extract contains polyphenol compounds, particularly catechins which act as antioxidants, fat dissolvent and aid lipolysis. Thus, it is necessary to study the use of green tea as an alternative treatment to overcome overweight.
Objectives : To identify the effect of green tea extract supplementation on body weight and malondialdehide (MDA) level of overweight women in Yogyakarta District Health Offi ce.
Methods : This was an experimental study with double-blind randomized controlled trial design. Subject of the study were divided into two groups; one group consumed green tea extract capsules and the other consumed placebo. Weight, 6 times 24 hours recall, and level of MDA were measured on every subject.
Results : The results revealed that green tea extract has a weight-reducing effect and decrease MDA level of overweight women, though the reduction of weight and MDA level was not signifi cant (p>0,05). Weight loss of 1.3% was observed in the treatment group, whereas the control group has an increase of 0.6% body weight, but the weight change was not signifi cant (p=0.501, p=0.620). Changes in body weight after 12 weeks of treatment showed a signifi cant disparity between the two groups (p=0.000). MDA level decreased by 10% in the treatment group compared to 8.3% in the control group. MDA levels pre and post intervention was signifi cantly different in the treatment group (p=0.006), whereas in the control group there was no signifi cant discrepancy observed (p=0.123). However, changes in MDA levels after 12 weeks of treatment showed no signifi cant differences among groups (p=0.278). The mean nutrient intakes of subjects were still below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA), except for protein.
Conclusion : Green tea extract had a weight-reducing effect and decrease MDA level of overweight women in Yogyakarta District Health Offi ce, though the reduction was not statistically signifi cant.
Key words : green tea extract, overweight, body weight, malondialdehid
1 Politeknik Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Jl. Lingkar Selatan, Kasihan, Bantul, Yogyakarta, e-mail:
2 Bagian Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281
3Program Studi Gizi Kesehatan, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281