ARTIKEL - April 2012, Vol.8, No.4
Potensi minuman bubuk kedelai (var. Galunggung) sebagai minuman fungsional: sifat fi sikokimia, efek hipoglikemik dan hipokolesterolemik serta status antioksidan
Setyaningrum Ariviani1, Sri Handajani1, Dian Rachmawanti Affandi1, Endang Listyaningsih2
Background : Powdered soy beverage is one of the functional drink products that grow rapidly in Indonesia. The beverage comes with variety of health claims including lower blood glucose level and improve antioxidant status. Galunggung is one of Indonesian superior soybean varieties that have several advantages, such as leave rust resistant, productivity reached 1,5 tons/ha, can be cultivated in tidal lands, large seeds and sturdy pods.
Objective : To determine the potential of powdered soybean (var. Galunggung) beverage as functional drink observed from physicochemical characteristics and effect of intake on glucose and cholesterol levels and antioxidant status of diabetic-hypercholesterolemic rats.
Method : The physicochemical characteristics evaluation performed by measuring disperse-ability, nutritional quality (proximate analysis), dietary fi ber and in vitro antioxidant capacity (total phenol content and anti radical DPPH activity). Determination of powdered soybean (var. Galunggung) beverage effectiveness to decrease plasma glucose and cholesterol levels and improve antioxidant status were conducted using 18 Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 3 months with an average body weight of 150 g, divided into three groups: negative control (placebo), positive control (diabetichypercholesterolemia) and treatment (powdered soybean beverage diet) group.
Result : Powdered soybean (var. Galunggung) beverage showed comparable physicochemical characteristics to commercial powdered soy beverage. This beverage also showed hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolemic effects, and improve antioxidant status of diabetic-hypercholesterolemic rats. Plasma glucose level of diabetic-hypercholesterolemic rats decreased from 228.03 + 2.55 mg/dl to 123.33 ± 1.89 mg/dl, plasma cholesterol level reduced from 177.08 ± 4.64 mg/dl to 119.69 ± 2.95 mg/dl and plasma MDA levels declined from 12.01 + 0.41 mmol/l to 5.50 + 0.20 mmol/l after intervention with powdered soybean (var.Galunggung) beverage diet for 2 weeks.
Conclusion : Powdered soybean (var. Galunggung) beverage has the potential to be developed as functional drink with several health claims, i.e. reduce glucose and cholesterol levels, and improve antioxidant status.
Key words : soybean powder drink, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant status, diabetichypercholesterolemia rats
1 Program Studi Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Negeri Sebelas Maret Surakarta, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Kentingan, Surakarta 57126, e-mail:
2 Bagian Histologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Negeri Sebelas Maret Surakarta, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Kentingan, Surakarta 57126
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ASI sebagai faktor protektif terhadap autisme
Kornelius Dandung Bawono1, Elisabeth Siti Herini1, Setya Wandita1
Background : The prevalence of autism has risen in the last decades. Risk factors of autism remain controversial and were thought to be multifactorial. One hypothesis stated that it may be caused by leaky gut theory and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid defi ciency. Optimal duration of breastfeeding has been proven to reduce risk of gastrointestinal infection and improve child’s cognitive ability.
Objective : To study the protective effect of optimal duration of breastfeeding to reduce the risk of autism.
Method : A matching case-control study was conducted in Yogyakarta and Magelang during 2008. Inclusion criteria of case group were all children with autism (diagnosed based on DSM-IV TR criteria), aged 3-10 years. Autistic children with distinct genetic disorder were excluded. Control group was matched on gender, age, and their residence. Breastfeeding pattern and other related information were obtained by direct interview. McNemar test, conditional multivariate logistic regression, and Maentel-Haenszel test were used to fi nd factors that are signifi cantly associated with autism.
Result : There were 52 children with autism and 104 control subjects. The mean age was 5 years old. The analysis revealed that breastfeeding duration for less than 6 months was a signifi cant risk factor for autism (ORMH=2,05; RK 95%:1,03-5,01), as well as history of abnormal birth weight (OR=3,36; RK 95%:1,37-8,44). There was dose-effect gradient as breastfeeding duration affected risk of autism. There was no differences on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding between the two groups.
Conclusion : Breastfeeding duration of less than 6 months was a signifi cant risk factor for autism.
Key words : autism, autism spectrum disorder, breastfeeding, breast milk duration
1 Bagian Ilmu Kesehatan Anak, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada / Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Dr Sardjito, Jl. Kesehatan 1 Sekip, Yogyakarta 55281, e-mail:
Faktor ibu dalam pemberian suplemen pada anak prasekolah
Ineka Andi Tabita1, Toto Sudargo2, Fatma Zuhrotun Nisa2
Background : Most children already meet their daily nutrient needs through food intake. However, many of them still consume food supplement. Supplement use becomes popular, but the pattern of supplement provision amongst preschool children has never been investigated. As the supplement use increases, there is an increased risk of over consumption of several micronutrients.
Objective : To evaluate the predictors of preschooler’s supplement intake related to mother’s socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and to compare dietary pattern and nutritional status of preschool children who consume and did not consume supplements.
Method : This is an observational study with case control design. The subjects were preschool children enrolled at Bandar Lampung Kindergarten and their mothers. The case and control group consisted of 79 mothers, respectively. Sociodemographic information and frequency of dietary supplement consumption were collected via parental questionnaires, including a 24-hour food recall.
Result : Most children consume multivitamin supplement once a day (65.45%).The most infl uential factor for mothers to give food supplement to their child is media exposure. Mothers from families with higher income, lower educated, consume supplement and highly motivated were signifi cantly more likely to give food supplement to their child than their counterparts. Excluding nutrient intake from supplement, there were no differences in nutrient intake between supplement consumers and non-consumers. There were also no differences in nutritional status between supplement consumers and non-consumers.
Conclusion : The most infl uential factor for mothers to give supplement to their child is media exposure. There were no differences in nutritional status and nutrient intake between supplement consumers and non-consumers.
Key words: supplement, preschool children, mother
1 Minat Utama Gizi dan Kesehatan, Program Studi S2 Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, e-mail:
Perbedaan status gizi, kesegaran jasmani, dan kualitas hidup anak sekolah di pedesaan dan perkotaan
Maria Mexitalia1, Hendriani Selina1, Mohammad Syarofil Anam1, Aya Yoshimura2, Taro Yamauchi2, Nurkukuh3, Bambang Hariyana3
Background : The differences in geographic, sosioeconomic and lifestyle between children in rural and urban areas infl uence their nutritional status. The urban children tended to be less active. The evidence suggested that physical activity improves cardiorespiratory fi tness and mental health in young people but study that compare those indicators among rural and urban children was scarce.
Objective : To compare the nutritional status, physical fi tness, and quality of life between elementary school children in rural and urban areas.
Method : A cross-sectional study was conducted at Semarang (urban) and Mlonggo (rural) Central Java in 2009. Inclusion criteria was school children aged 9-11 years and had no physical disability. Body composition was measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, physical activity by Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), physical fi tness by 20-m shuttle run test and quality of life by Pediatrics Quality of Life Questionnaire (PedQoL 4.0). The differences between nutritional status and physical activity were assessed by Chi Square test, while the differences between physical fi tness and quality of life were tested by independent t test (p<0.05).
Result : One hundred sixty-two subjects were enrolled in the study (Semarang 82 students; 36 boys, 46 girls and Mlonggo 80 students; 40 boys, 40 girls). Body mass index (18.97 vs 15.16 kg/m2) and body fat (26.03% vs 18.03%) of urban children were higher than that of the rural’s (p<0.001). Children in rural area were signifi cantly more active, have higher physical fi tness level (VO2 max 28.54±1.79 ml/kg/min vs 21.57+1.79 ml/kg/min) (p<0.01), and have higher score in quality of life (2243 + 295,8) compared to the children from urban area (2133 + 369.4) (p<0.05).
Conclusion : Rural school children have lower nutritional status than urban children, but they are more active and have higher physical fi tness level. They also have better quality of life.
Key words : nutritional status, physical activity, physical fi tness, quality of life, school age children
1 Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Anak Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro / Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Dr. Kariadi Semarang, Jl. Dr. Soetomo No 18, Semarang, e-mail:
2 Department of Human Ecology Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Japan, Kitaku Sapporosi Hokkaido Japan, e-mail: taroy@med. hokudai.ac.jp
3 Laboratorium Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro, Kecamatan Mlonggo Kabupaten Jepara, e-mail: bhariyana@ yahoo.co.id
Pengembangan metode skrining gizi untuk pasien dewasa rawat inap
Susetyowati1, Hamam Hadi2, Muhammad Hakimi3, Ahmad Husain Asdie4
Background : A comprehensive nutrition assessment needs to be done on all hospitalized patients. The accuracy of nutritional assessment are necessary to ensure the provision of optimal nutrition support for the patient to prevent iatrogenic malnutrition and speed up the healing process. The nutrition screening tools has limited ability to be used as a valid indicator for comprehensive nutritional assessment. Thus, it is necessary to develop a new nutrition screening tool.
Objective : To develop a simple, quick and valid malnutrition screening tool that can be used to identify adult patients at risk of malnutrition.
Methods : This is an observational study with cross sectional design. The subjects were 495 patients admitted to Sardjito General Hospital, excluding paediatric, maternity, and psychiatric patients. All patients were screened using the Nutrition Screening Tool of University Gadjah Mada (NST-UGM). The validity of the NST-UGM will be tested by measuring the sensitivity and specifi city value compared to Subjective Global Assessment (SGA).
Result : The newly developed nutrition screening tool consisted of 6 questions with a cut-off of 0-2 classifi ed as not at risk of malnutrition and > 2 classifi ed as at risk of malnutrition. The sensitivity and specifi city value of the new screening tool compared with SGA were 91.28 and 79.78 respectively. Therefore, the convergent and predictive validity of NSTUGM was established.
Conclusion : The NST-UGM is a simple, quick and valid tool which can be used to identify patients at risk of malnutrition.
Key words : hospital malnutrition, nutrition screening, nutrition assessment, subjective global assessment
1 Program Studi Gizi Kesehatan, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara Yogyakarta 55281, e-mail: susetyowati2000@ yahoo.com
4 Bagian Penyakit Dalam, Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Dr. Sardjito, Jl. Kesehatan no 1, Yogyakarta 55281
Asupan zat gizi mikro dengan fungsi kognitif pada lanjut usia
Ade Rahmawati1, I Dewa Putu Pramantara2, Martalena Br. Purba3
Background : The elderly population in Indonesia increased signifi cantly in the last two decades as the life expectancy increase from 66.7 years to 70.5 years with impact to the emergence of diseases in the elderly. One of them is degradation of cognitive function that may disrupt productivity, daily activities, and quality of life of the elderly. Adequate micronutrients intake may help in maintaining cognitive function.
Objectives : To identify association between intake of micronutrients (vitamin B6, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin E) and cognitive function of the elderly at Among Yuswa Club of Banteng Baru, District of Sleman.
Methods : This was an observational study with cross sectional design. Subjects were elderly people at Among Yuswa Club of Banteng Baru, District of Sleman. Data on cognitive function was obtained using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and intake of micronutrients were collected using Semi Qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SQFFQ). The data was analysed by chi square and logistic regression tests.
Results : The result showed statistically signifi cant association between cognitive function and intake of vitamin B6 (p=0.010; RP=2.514; 95%CI=1.133-5.575), vitamin C intake (p=0.011; RP=3.039; 95%CI=1.454-6.353) and vitamin E intake (p=0.021; RP=1.266; 95%CI=1.057-1.516); meanwhile folate intake has no signifi cant association with cognitive function (p>0.05).
Conclusion : There were signifi cant associations between intake of vitamin B6, vitamin C and vitamin E with cognitive function. There was no signifi cant association found between intake of folate and cognitive function in the elderly.
Key words : micronutrients, cognitive function, elderly
1 Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Univesitas Wiralodra Indramayu, Jl. Ir.H.Juanda KM.3, Indramayu, e-mail:
2 Bagian Penyakit Dalam Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Dr. Sardjito, Jl. Kesehatan No 1, Yogyakarta 55281, e-mail: dewapramantara@yahoo. com
Pola makan dan konsumsi alkohol sebagai faktor risiko hipertensi pada lansia
Nancy Swanida Henriette Malonda1, Lucia Kris Dinarti2, Retno Pangastuti3
Background : Hypertension is one of the major chronic diseases in the elderly and the prevalence is constantly increasing. The results of Health Research Survey (Riskesdas) in 2007 showed that the prevalence of hypertension in the city of Tomohon was 41.6%. The prevalence of fatty foods consumption in Tomohon was relatively high, amounted to 17.2%. The proportion of alcohol consumer in North Sulawesi province was higher (17.4%) than the National proportion (4.6%), and Tomohon has signifi cantly higher alcohol consumers (36%). The consumption pattern of fatty foods and alcoholic beverages were factors that might increase the risk of hypertension.
Objectives : To identify the infl uence of eating pattern and alcohol consumption as risk factors of hypertension in the elderly at Tomohon Municipality.
Methods : This is an analytic observational study with case control design. Subjects were elderly people aged 60 – 65 years at Tomohon Municipality consisted of 76 cases (hypertensive) and 76 control (non-hypertensive). Data was collected through structured interviews, food frequency questionaire (FFQ ) was used to assess dietary pattern, mental health questionnaire (Self Reporting Questionnaire) was used to determine the condition of stress, waist-hip ratio measurement for obesity status, and blood pressure measurements. Data were analysed by bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis.
Results : The result of bivariate analysis showed that fat intake (OR=3.046; 95% CI:1.338 – 6.933; p=0.008), alcohol consumption (OR=2.8; 95% CI:1.418 – 5.299; p=0.003), and obesity (OR=2.4; 95% CI:1.072 – 5.404; p=0.033) signifi cant increase the risk of hypertension. The intake of natrium, potassium and calcium, family history, smoking and stress showed no signifi cant association with hypertension. Statistical analysis revealed that the variables that become dominant risk factors for hypertension and affected the incidence of hypertension were fat (OR=3.303; 95% CI:1.346 – 8.10; p=0.009) and alcohol consumption (OR=2.792; 95% CI:1.347–5.789; p=0.006).
Conclusion : High fat and alcohol consumption were risk factors that affect the incidence of hypertension amongst the elderly at Tomohon Municipality.
Key words : hypertension, eating pattern, fat, alcohol consumption, elderly
1 Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Sam Ratulangi, Jl. Kampus Unsrat Kleak Manado 95115, e-mail:
2 Bagian Kardiologi dan Kedokteran Vaskuler, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281