ARTIKEL - November 2004, Vol.1, No.2
GIZI LEBIH SEBAGAI TANTANGAN BARU DAN IMPLIKASINYA TERHADAP KEBIJAKAN PEMBANGUNAN KESEHATAN NASIONAL 1,2
oleh : Hamam Hadi
Sebagai negara yang sedang berkembang dan sedang membangun, bangsa Indonesia masih memiliki beberapa ketertinggalan dan kekurangan jika dibandingkan negara lain yang sudah lebih maju. Di bidang kesehatan, bangsa Indonesia masih harus berjuang memerangi berbagai macam penyakit infeksi dan kurang gizi yang saling berinteraksi satu sama lain menjadikan tingkat kesehatan masyarakat Indonesia tidak kunjung meningkat secara signifikan. Ironisnya, di beberapa daerah lain atau pada sekelompok masyarakat Indonesia yang lain terutama di kota-kota besar, masalah kesehatan masyarakat utama justru dipicu dengan adanya kelebihan gizi; meledaknya kejadian obesitas di beberapa daerah di Indonesia akan mendatangkan masalah baru yang mempunyai konsekuensi-konsekuensi serius bagi pembangunan bangsa Indonesia khususnya di bidang kesehatan. Pendek kata, masih tingginya prevalensi kurang gizi di beberapa daerah dan meningkatnya prevalensi obesitas yang dramatis di beberapa daerah yang lain akan menambah beban yang lebih komplek dan harus dibayar mahal oleh bangsa Indonesia dalam upaya pembangunan bidang kesehatan, sumberdaya manusia dan ekonomi.
1 Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
2 Dipresentasikan pada pidato pengukuhan jabatan guru besar pada Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, 5 Februari 2005, Yogyakarta
AKTIVITAS FISIK PADA REMAJA SLTP KOTA YOGYAKARTA DAN KABUPATEN BANTUL SERTA HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN KEJADIAN OBESITAS
Emy Huriyati1, Hamam Hadi1, Madarina Julia2
Background : The prevalence of obesity is markedly increasing, both in developed and developing countries. Whether physical activity contributes to the obesity in Indonesian adolescents is still unknown.
Objective. To assess whether physical activity is associated with obesity in junior high school adolescents in Yogyakarta.
Methods. A case control study was conducted in Yogyakarta Province in 2003. Subjects were 140 obese and 140 non-obese junior high school adolescents in Yogyakarta and Bantul, randomly chosen from an obesity survey performed previously. Pattern and duration of activity were assessed using IPAQ modified questionnaire. The activities were than sorted into light (sedentary), moderate and vigorous activities.
Results. There was significant difference in the distribution sedentary activity between adolescents of Yogyakarta and Bantul (p<0,0001). The mean duration of sedentary activity in Yogyakarta was 12.4 hours/day while in Bantul was 11.0 hours/day. Obese adolescents spent longer time in sedentary activity than non obese adolescents (p=0.002). The odds of being obese in adolescent whose sedentary activity was longer than 13 hours /day were almost doubled.
Conclusion. Urban adolescents spent more time for sedentary activities than rural adolescents, so were obese adolescents. The association of sedentary activities to obesity is independent from other factors such as calorie intake and parental obesity status.
Keyword : adolescent obesity, sedentary, physical activity
1 Program Studi Ilmu Gizi Kesehatan Fakultas Kedokteran UGM
2 Bagian Ilmu Kesehatan Anak Fakultas Kedokteran UGM
ASUPAN GIZI SEBAGAI FAKTOR RISIKO PENYAKIT INFARK MIOKARD AKUT DI RUMAH SAKIT SANGLAH DENPASAR
P P Sri Sugiani1 , Hamam Hadi2 , I D P Pramantara3
Background :Coronary heart disease especially acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the main cause of death even in the developing countries. Coronary heart disease has been reported to be associated with high intakes of some nutrients.
Objective : the study conducted to understand the role of nutrient intake as risk factors of AMI in Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar
Methods : A case control study was conducted in district of Denpasar in 2003. Cases were people who had AMI and hospitalized in Sanglah Hospital. Each case had two controls one of which was hospitalized patient with no AMI and the second was taken from the case-neighboring household. Controls were sex-and-age matched with cases. Data on nutrient intakes of cases and controls were collected using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Data of lipids profile were collected by a chemical analyst. Data on nutrient intakes were analised using food processor II (FP II). Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine whether nutrient intakes were risk factors of AMI
Result : this study showed that people who had energy intake from fat more than 30% of the total energy were 12 times (OR=12, 95 % CI : 2,71 – 53) more likely to have AMI than those with energy intake < 30%. People with high natrium intake were 9 times (OR=9, 95% CI= 1.8-43.4) more likely to have AMI than those with low natrium intake. People with LDL/HDL ratio more than 3 were 7 times (OR=7, 95% CI= 1.4 – 3.7) more likely to have AMI than those with LDL/HDL ratio less than 3.
Conclusion : High fat and natrium intakes and high LDL/ HDL ratio appeared to be risk factors of AMI.
Key words : AMI, risk factors, nutrition intake, LDL/HDL ratio
1 Jurusan Gizi Poltekes Denpasar
2 FK UGM Yogyakarta
3 RS dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta
PREVALENSI OBESITAS DAN HUBUNGAN KONSUMSI FAST FOOD DENGAN KEJADIAN OBESITAS PADA REMAJA SLTP KOTA DAN DESA DI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA
Mahdiah1, Hamam Hadi2, Susetyowati3
Background :The improvement in socieconomic status has led to sadentary life style and more fast food consumption. Whether fast food consumption contributes to obesity in Indonesian adolescentss remains unclear.
Objective : The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of obesity and to assess the association between fast food consumption and obesity in junior high school students.
Study Design : A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2003 to estimate the prevalence of obesity in adolescent students of Yogyakarta Special Province. Subjects of this survey were junior high school students from urban (n= 4747) and rural areas (n=4602) were included in this survey. To further analyze the association between food consumption and obesity, a sample of 140 obese (of 460 obese students) and 140 non obese students (of 8889 non obese students) was randomly selected. Data on fast food consumption were collected using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) method from the selected obese and non obese sample.
Result : The prevalence of obesity among adolescent students was 7.9% in urban and 2% in rural areas. There was a significant difference in variety, quantity, and frequency of fast food consumption per month and hereby energy intake from fast food between obese and non obese adolescent students (p<0,05).
Conclusion : The prevalence of obesity in urban area was much higher than that in rural area. Obese students consumed fast food more frequently and more variably than non obese students.
Key Words : obesity, fast food, rural,urban
1 Poltekes Medan
2 Medicine Faculty of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta.
3 Medicine Faculty of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta.
PENGARUH ALAT PENYAJIAN DISPOSABLE TERHADAPSISA MAKANAN PASIEN DI RUANG RAWAT INAPRSUP Dr. KARIADI SEMARANG
Tiurma Heryawanti P1, Endy Paryanto Prawirohartono2, and Toto Sudargo2
Background :Food service success relates to patient plate waste. Patient plate waste in Indonesia Hospitals could be more than 25%. Cause of patient plate waste in Hospital is lack of food and equipment quality. Almost of 32,8% patients in 10 hospitals model in Indonesia clarify that appearance, cleanliness, and equipment are good.
Objective : The aims of theses research was to identify the effect of serving utensils and the other factors to the plate waste.
Methods : This was a Quasi Experiment study using pre posttest with control. Study subject consisted of 45 patients in the treatment group and 45 patients in the control group. Data were analyzed descriptively and whereas t- test, Fisher Exact test, Chi- Square were performed to differentiate the proportions and means in two groups. The effect of several variables on plate waste was calculated using logistic regression on analysis.
Result : This study showed that no significant difference of taste, appearance, attitude of the staff who serve meals, service timeliness, kind of food, kind of diseases and environment to patient plate waste (p > 0,05). There was no significant effected of the serving disposable utensils on patient plate waste (p > 0,005).
Conclusion : The type of serving disposable utensils was no a significant factor effected the plate waste.
Keywords : Serving utensils, patient plate waste.
1 RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang.
2 Pasca Sarjana IKM, Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, Yogyakarta.
EFFECT OF NUTRITION EDUCATION FOR MOTHER ON THE FOOD CONSUMPTION AND NUTRION STATUS OF THE CHILDREN THAT INFECTED BY PRIMARY TUBERCOLUSIS AT DOKTER KARIADI HOSPITAL SEMARANG
Tatik Mulyati1, Endy Paryanto Prawirohartono2, and Toto Sudargo2
Background :Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that persists as a public health problem in Indonesia. The tuberculosis infected to the under 5-years old-children namely primary tuberculosis, could decrease the children’s immunity eventually causes death, which were 100.000 death rate 75% are children’s. condition of children’s health were deeply depending on the quality and quantity of their food consumption. An adequate consumption is needed to increase their nutrition status. To improve the maternal behavior of children’s food consumption, it is necessary to give nutritional education.
Purpose : The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of nutritional education on the food consumption and nutrition status of the under 5-years old-children that infected by primary tuberculosis.
Research Method : The research was an experimental research using randomized controlled trial method. The subject was 1 to 5-year(s) old-children those who infected by primary tuberculosis at Unit Rawat Jalan RSUP Dokter Kariadi Semarang. Two groups chosen by randomized got different treatments, i.e. availability and unavailability of nutritional education. Each group was asked to come to Poliklinik Paru Anak every two-weeks for two months (4 times). The food consumption data was collected by multiple recall before treatment and after research. The nutrition status was determined by weight per age and weight per height of Z-Score WHO NCHS.
Result : The result of this study showed that after the nutritional education issued, the energy consumption average of children has increase 18.18% from necessity and the protein consumption average of children has increase 21.39% from necessity. There was a significant effect of nutritional education on increasing protein consumption of under 5-years old-children that was infected by primary tuberculosis (p<0.05). It was also showed that the Z-Score increasing (weight per age and weight per height) of children in treatment-group was higher than the control-group.
Conclusion : Nutritional education has a significant effect on increasing protein consumption of under 5-years old-children that was infected by primary tuberculosis (p<0,05), or there is increasing of protein consumption about 21,39%.
Keywords : Nutritional Education, Primary Tuberculosis, Food Consumption, and Nutrition Status.
1 RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang
2 Pascasarjana IKM, Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, Yogyakarta.