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Jurnal Vol.2 No.3

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ARTIKEL - Juli 2005, Vol.2, No.3

PENGARUH STATUS GIZI IBU MENYUSUI TERHADAP EKSKLUSIVITAS ASI DAN PERTUMBUHAN BAYI DI RSUD PROF. DR. WZ JOHANNES KUPANG-NTT

Beatrix Soi1, Madarina Julia2, R. Dwi Budiningsari3

ABSTRACT
Background :
Numerous research have been made to find out contributive factors of the exclusive breastfeeding.
Objective : The objective of this study was to find out whether mothers’ nutritional status had any influence on the exclusivity of breastfeeding and on the growth of their babies up to 4 months.
Methods : This observational study was carried out with a prospective cohort design and lasted from November 2004 to May 2005. The subjects were 80 pairs of mother and baby treated at the Obstetric and Gynecology Unit (UPF) of Local Public Hospital (RSUD) Prof. Dr. W.Z. Johannes at Kupang – NTT. The subjects were divided into two groups namely Under-nutrition status group marked by <23,5 cm mid arm-circumference, and control group comprised 46 mothers of well-nutrition status who had bigger mid arm-circumference >23,5 cm. Observed babies were those of normal or spontaneous delivery, non twin with >2500 g birth weight. Follow up observations were made at family home and the data on breastfeeding characteristics were collected by interview, babies weight were measured by Secca baby scale with 0,01 kg level of accuracy mid arm-circumference was measured by means of LILA tape, and body length was measured using length-board. Tools measure with 0,1 cm level of accuracy. Some statistical tests were used namely Chi-Square; student’s t-test; and while Kaplan Meier log-rank test as needed.
Results : More than 50% of under-nutrition mothers were under 25 years old. Chi-Square test shows that significant difference between mother’s age was (p=0,04). More than 50% of the KEK group gave birth for the first time or ‘primipara’ (p=0,25). Kaplan Meier analysis showed that there was no difference between survival median of breastfeeding between the both group (p=0,53). t-test showed that there were significant differences of the babies body weight of the both KEK and non KEK mothers, namely pd”0,01, p=0.01, and p=0.03 in the first, second, third, and the fourth month respectively. In terms of the average babies body length, the t-test also showed significant differences between both groups with p=0.02 and p=0.01 in the third and the fourth month respectively.
Conclusion : I can be concluded that mother’ nutrition status did not have any influence on the exclusivity of breastfeeding, however, it did significantly influence babies growth from 0-4 month.


Keyword : Nutrition status, lactating mother, exclusive breastfeeding, baby’s growth

1 Politeknik Kesehatan Kupang NTT
2 Bagian Anak RS Dr. Sardjito/Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, Yogyakarta
3 Magister Gizi dan Kesehatan UGM, Yogyakarta

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PENGARUH SUPLEMENTASI Fe DAN Zn TERHADAP KADAR HAEMOGLOBIN DAN KESEGARAN JASMANI PADA LANSIA ANEMIA DI KABUPATEN BANTUL

Endang Pamungkasiwi1, Wiryatun Lestariana2, Retno Pangastuti3

ABSTRACT
Background :
Province of Yogyakarta Special Territory is a province of “elderly” structure population, as viewed from the number of elderly which is 15% of total population. Anemia is one of nutrition problems of elderly which reaches as high as 50%. This is caused by low intake of iron and other substances related to iron metabolism process in forming hemoglobin. Low hemoglobin concentration can be one of causes of elderly declining physical fitness. Efforts to overcome anemic problems can be done through the supply of iron and zinc for the elderly twice a week.
Objective: To know effect of iron and zinc supply to hemoglobin concentration and physical fitness for anemic elderly at Bantul District, Province of Yogyakarta Special Territory.
Methods : The study was a randomized double blind controlled trial design. Subject of the study were anemic elderly that fulfilled inclusion criteria. The supply of iron, combination of iron and zinc to trial group was given twice a week on different days, supply of iron was given on Monday and Thursday, while supply of zinc was given on Tuesday and Saturday. Laboratory and physical fitness examination to both group were done prior and after treatment. Nutrition intake data were achieved through food record. Next, to know effect of iron, iron and zinc supply to elderly hemoglobin concentration and physical fitness, covariant analysis was done.
Result :The result of the study showed that after 3 months’ treatment, there was significant difference of hemoglobin concentration caused by different treatment of group with iron supply, iron and zinc combination supply and control group (p=0.012) although iron and combined iron and zinc supply had equal effectiveness in increasing hemoglobin concentration (p=0.404). There was no significant relationship between elderly hemoglobin concentration and physical fitness (p=0.448). This showed that treatment given affected increase of hemoglobin concentration but the supply and increase of haemoglobin concentration did not affect increase of elderly physical fitness.
Conclusion :The supply of iron and combined iron and zinc increase hemoglobin concentration, but the supply and increase of hemoglobin concentration did not increase the elderly physical fitness.

Key words : Iron and iron supply, anemia, physical fitness, elderly

1 Dinas Kesehatan Propinsi DIY
2 Bagian Biokimia Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, Yogyakarta
3 Instalasi Gizi RS Dr. Sardjito/Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, Yogyakarta

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HUBUNGAN ASUPAN PROTEIN DAN LEMAK DENGAN STATUS KESEHATAN MULUT ANAK USIA PRASEKOLAH DI KECAMATAN JETIS KABUPATEN BANTUL D.I. YOGYAKARTA

Jatri Handijani1, Al Supartinah2, R. Dwi Budiningsari3

ABSTRACT
Background :
The main problem of children’s oral cavity are caries and gingivitis. One cause of caries and gingivitis is plaque of which its formation and composition are affected by nutritional factor. Nutrition can be cariogenic or non cariogenic both of which can bring direct or indirect impact to oral cavity. In the oral cavity both protein and fat are non cariogenic.
Objective : To identify the relationship between protein and fat intake with oral health status (level of caries seriousness, oral cleanliness, gingiva health and saliva acidity) of preschool children in Jetis subdistrict, Bantul District, Yogyakarta Special Territory.
Method : This was an observational study which used a cross sectional design. Subject of study were 100 children of 4-6 years old taken by using propotional random sampling. Data collected consisted of eating pattern, respondent characteristics, level of caries seriousness, oral cleanliness, gingiva health and saliva acidity. Data analysis used Person correlation statistic and linier regression. Data collected consisted of eating pattern, respondent characteristics, level of caries seriousness, oral cleanliness, gingival health status and saliva acidity. Data analysis used Pearson correlation statistic and linear regression tests.
Result : Result of the study showed that there was relationship between protein and fat intake with oral cleanliness and saliva acidity (p<0.05) and there was no relationship between protein and fat intake with level of caries seriousness and gingiva health (p>0.05)
Conclusion : There was relationship between protein and fat intake with oral health status (oral cleanliness and saliva acidity), but not with oral health status (level of caries seriousness and gingiva health).

Key Words : Intake of protein and fat, oral health status, preschool children.

1 Puskesmas Rapak Balikpapan
2 Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi UGM, Yogyakarta
3 Magister Gizi dan Kesehatan UGM, Yogyakarta

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FAKTOR RISIKO KEJADIAN GIZI BURUK DI KABUPATEN LOMBOK TIMUR, PROPINSI NUSA TENGGARA BARAT

Khaerul Anwar1, M. Juffrie2, Madarina Julia2

ABSTRACT
Background :
Despite numerous interventions, the prevalence of severe malnutrition in under fives in the District of Lombok Timur during the last 5 years did not changed much and tended to increase.
Objective : To assess risk factors for severe malnutrition, considered from points of view of family characteristics, children rearing practice and performance of posyandu, in 12 to 23 month-infants in the district.
Method : This was a case-control study. Cases were 65 severely malnourished children, while controls were a same number of children matched for age.
Result : In bivariate analyses, variables identified as risk factors of severe malnutrition are low family income, OR(95%CI) of 5.0 (1.9-13.5), p=0.001; low maternal education, OR(95%CI) of 2.3 (1.1-4.9), p=0.02; low maternal knowledge on growth monitoring, OR(95%CI) of 15.6 (4.4-55.1), p<0.001; not cared by mother, OR(95%CI) of 7.8 (1.7-36.5), p=0.003; low birth weight, OR(95%CI) of 5.7 (1.2-27.3), p=0.02; short duration of exclusive breastfeeding, OR(95%CI) of 2.6 (1.3-5.2), p=0.008; incomplete immunization, OR(95%CI) of 10.3 (2.3-46.9), p<0.001; and the children’s feeding practice, OR(95%CI) of 3.3 (1.5-7.4), p=0.004. In multiple logistic regression, only maternal knowledge on growth monitoring was significantly associated with the risk of severe malnutrition.
Conclusion : Family characteristic and children rearing practice were important risk factors of severe malnutrition in Lombok Timur District. Performance of posyandu is not associated with occurrence of severe malnutrition.

Keywords : Severe malnutrition, performance of Posyandu, family characteristic, children rearing practice.

1 Dinas Kesehatan Propinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat
2 Bagian Anak RS Dr. Sardjito/Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, Yogyakarta

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PERBEDAAN PaCO2 DARAH PADA PASIEN KRITIS YANG MENDAPAT DIET MAKANAN ENTERAL KOMERSIAL DENGAN DIET MAKANAN ENTERAL KOMBINASI DI RUMAH SAKIT Dr. SARDJITO YOGYAKARTA

Mohammad Jaelani1, Untung Widodo2, Susetyowati3

ABSTRACT
Background :
Malnutrition often occurs in a critical patient caused by various things such as decreasing function of gastrointestinal tract, high process of catabolism and homeostatie destruction. Other problem that may occur when nutrition is given with high total calories could be dangerous because it could cause hiperglikemia, the production improvement of CO2 blood and worsen the homeostasis destruction..
Objective : To find out the differenc of PaCO2 blood in critical patients who obtain commercial enteral food diet or combined enteral food diet.
Method : This was an experimental study using randomized controlled trial with pretest-posttest control group design. The subjects were critical patients who were given care in the intensive installation Dr. Sardjito hospital Yogyakarta who met the criteria: adult patient, using ventilator and receiving enteral fod diet.
Result : There was no difference between PaCO2 blood in critical patient who obtained commercial enteral diet and combined enteral food diet. There was a change difference of PaCO2 in the energy intake between criteria >110% compared with <80% from total energy (p=0.03) and there was a different on change of PaCO2 in carbohydrate intake between criteria >55% compared with <55% from energy total (p=0.03).
Conclusion : The improvement of PaCO2 was not caused by the type of enteral formula given, cause of the high intake of energy and carbohydrate.

Keywords : Critical patient, PaCO2, ventilator, commercial enteral, combination enteral

1 Politeknik Kesehatan Semarang
2 BP GAKI/Magister Gizi dan Kesehatan UGM, Yogyakarta
3 Instalasi Gizi RS Dr. Sardjito/Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, Yogyakarta

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Rini Andarwati1, Endy P Prawirohartono2, Indira L Gamayanti2

ABSTRACT
Background :
Intellegence is affected by 2 factors, internal (genetics) and external (nutrition intake, infection, toxin, stimulation, environmental) factors. Sufficient nutrition is very important during pregnancy. Birth weight and exclusive breastfeeding affect brain growth and development. Malnutrition during infancy results in stunting and impaired cognitive function in children. Lack of stimulation may affect intelligence.
Objective : The objective of the study was to find out the relationship among birth weight, exclusive breastfeeding, nutrition status and cognitive stimulation and intelligence.
Method : An analytic observational study was conducted with cross sectional design, at kindergarten in Prambanan Subdistrict. Subjects were recruited based on a cluster random sampling technique. There were 50 children and mothers met the inclusion criteria of mothers who knew the child’s background (birth weight, breastfeeding practices) and were willing to be included in this study. Intelligence was assessed using Stanford Binet test. Data were analyzed with chi square and logistic regression tests.
Result : The study showed that 76% of children had normal intelligence and 24% of children had abnormal intelligence. Based on multivariable analysis, low cognitive stimulation was a risk factor of getting low IQ score (OR=15.6; CI 95%=1.725–141.272), whereas birth weight (OR=1.1; CI 95%=0.126–9.751), exclusive breastfeeding (OR=4.9; CI 95%=0.494–49.054) and nutrition status did not relate to intelligence.
Conclusion : There was significant relationship between cognitive stimulation and intelligence, whereas birth weight, exclusive breastfeeding and nutrition status did not significantly relate with intelligence.

Keywords : Birth weight, exclusive breastfeeding, nutritional status, cognitive stimulation, intelligence

1 Politeknik Kesehatan Medan
2 Bagian anak RS Dr. Sardjito/Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, Yogyakarta

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