ARTIKEL - November 2006, Vol.3, No.2
Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi tingkat kebugaran lanjut usia penghuni Panti Budi Agung Kupang di Kota Kupang
Agustina Setia1, I Dewa Putu Pramantara2, Retno Pangastuti3
Background : A major physiological change during aging is decreasing need of energy which occurs as a consequence of decreasing lean body mass and physical activity. This process affects absorption level. Nutrition has an important role in improving physical fitness, preventing degenerative diseases, and minimizing dependence. Decreasing fitness among the elderly may be overcome through physical exercise, sufficient nutrient intake, autonomy and mobility in undertaking daily activities.
Objective : This research was aimed to improve knowledge, attitude and behavior of mother of children under five years old who joint the health information with audiovisual media, module and control as well as to find out the different level of the improvement before and after intervention.
Method : The study was observational with cross sectional design. Subject of the study based on inclusion criteria were the elderly aged more than 60 years old, could do daily activities, had no acute diseases. Exclusion criteria were those who had heart disease, lung disease, cognitive disorder, and mobility disorder. Data of nutrient intake were obtained from food record processed with computer program. Data of nutrition status were measured with body mass index, haemoglobin level with cyanmethemoglobin, and daily activities with functional independence measurement. Fitness level was measured using 6 minute-walk test. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regression test.
Result : The study showed that there were 10 variables significantly related to physical fitness of the elderly, i.e. energy intake (p=0.009, r=0,368), protein intake (p=0.012, r=0.354), carbohydrate intake (p=0.036, r=0.297), vitamin B12 intake (p=0.000, r=0.691), vitamin D intake (p=0.001, r=0.455), folic acid intake (p=0.005, r=0.394), iron intake (p=0.000, r=0.540), age (p=0.002, r=-0.428), haemoglobin level (p=0.003, r=0.410), activities of daily living (p=0.000, r=0.800), but intake of fat and vitamin B6 were not. Body mass index statistically had no significant relationship (p>0.05) with elderly fitness level. Multiple regression analysis showed that the most influential variables that made the elderly unfit were protein intake (p=0.012 and B= -3.730), vitamin B12 intake (p=0.000 and B=10.352), folic acid intake (p=0.045 and B=7.085), activities of daily living (p=0.000 and B=8.014).
Conclusion : High protein intake, vitamin B12 intake, folic acid intake, and activities of daily living increased physical fitness of the elderly at Budi Agung Charitable House, Kupang.
Key words : aging, energy intake, nutrient intake, nutritiona status, haemoglobin, daily activities, fitness
1 Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Dumai
2 Bagian Penyakit Dalam RS Dr. Sardjito
3 Instalasi Gizi RS Dr. Sardjito/Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, Yogyakarta
Pengaruh pelatihan asuhan gizi dalam meningkatkan kinerja ahli gizi ruang rawat inap di RSUD DR. Soetomo Surabaya
Indrawati Nurlela1, Tjahjono Kuntjoro2, Toto Castro3
Background : Nutrition service department is a part of health care components in a hospital. This department is expected to have better image. Training is needed to improve work performance of dietitians in achieving a professional work.
Objective : To find out the influence of nutrition training to work performance of dietitians.
Method : This study was pre-experimental with before-after design without control group. Subjects consisted of 15 dietitians and 90 inpatients at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya. Data were collected through observation and assessment using questionnaires and check-list, and then analyzed using computer software.
Result : There were significant influences of nutrition training to dietitians’ knowledge and attitude (p<0.05). The competence was also significantly improved (p<0.05) with the differentiation points at the first, second, and third month (50.42, 56.16, and 54.11 respectively). Nutrition service output was also significantly improved (p<0.05) with the differentiation points at the first, second, and third month (12.86, 12.40, and 11.06 respectively). There were significant differences in patient satisfaction only when they ate vegetables for lunch, vegetables for dinner, and fruits for lunch (p<0.05).
Conclusion : Nutrition training improved work performance of dietitians in providing service for inpatients at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya.
Key words : nutrition service, training, performance, dietitians, inpatients
1 Instalasi Gizi RSUD Dr.Soetomo Surabaya
2 Bapelkes Gombong
3 Bapelkes Salaman
Hubungan kadar serum albumin dengan kejadian morbiditas dan mortalitas pada pasien penyakit ginjal kronik dengan hemodialisis di RS Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta
La Banudi1, Ahmad Husain Asdie2, Susetyowati3
Background : Chronic kidney disease is a characterized by decreasing kidney function with creatine clearance test <15 mL/minute. At such condition toxic in the body accumulates so that dialysis is needed to eliminate it. Blood albumin serum level may indicate nutrition status and is closely related to morbidity and mortality of hemodialysis patients.
Objective : To find out association between albumin serum level and occurrence of morbidity and mortality among patients of chronic kidney disease with hemodialysis.
Method : The study was observational with prospective cohort design. It was conducted at Dialysis Installation of Dr. Sardjito Hospital from August 2004 to December 2005. Population were all patients of hemodialysis. Samples were purposively taken using inclusion criteria with as many as 44 minimal samples. Dependent variables were morbidty and mortality. Independent variables were albumin serum level, age and long time hemodialysis. Data analysis was done in phases, univariable, and then bivariable.
Result : There was association between albumin serum level and morbidity at observation I (p=0.021), observation II (p=0.036), and observation III (p=0.012) which indicated that p<0.05. There was also association between albumin serum level and mortality at observation I (p=0.011), observation II, III and IV (p=0.000) which indicated that p<0.05.
Conclusion : There was association between albumin serum level and morbidity and mortality of chronic kidney disease patients with hemodialysis.
Key words: albumin, morbidity, mortality, haemodialysis
1 Politeknik Kesehatan Kendari, Sulawesi Tenggara
2 Bagian Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, Yogyakarta
3 Instalasi Gizi RS Dr. Sardjito/Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, Yogyakarta
Pengaruh pijat bayi terhadap kenaikan berat badan bayi umur 4 bulan
Mohammad Shoim1, Endy P. Prawirohartono2, Madarina Julia2
Background : Optimum growth and development reflects the interaction among genetics, environments, attitude factors, and positive stimulations. Positive effect of massage on infant growth has long been recognized, but research on this phenomenon has not much been performed. The growth faltering in children begins at 1-6 months of age in Indonesia.
Objective : To identify the effect of massage toward weight gain in infants of 4 months old.
Method : The study was quasi experimental with 2 groups of posttest design. The subjects were infants of 4 months old that were born in two hospitals. Those who were born in one hospital were selected as the control group and the rest were selected as the treatment group. The massage was performed twice a week for four weeks. The data of weight, food intake, illness were collected once a week, whereas the data of mothers’ knowledge and attitude toward breast milk were gathered once during the research period.
Result : There was a significant effect of massage on weight gain. The median weight gain of the control group and treatment group were 0.40 kg (Q1=0.35; Q3=0.40) and 0.60 kg (Q1=0.50; Q3=0.70) respectively. The massage also affected the waz (weight for age Z-scores) where the median difference of waz at the beginning and the end of the study of the control group was –0.27 (Q1=-0.34; Q3=-0.23), whereas in the treatment group was -0.03 (Q1=-0.13; Q3=0.09). It meant that control group faced the growth faltering of –0.27 SD waz in a month and treatment group did it for –0.03 SD waz in a month.
Conclusion : Infants who got massage treatment had higher weight gain than those who did not.
Key words : massage, weight gain, infants of 4 months old
1 Fakultas Ilmu Kesehatan Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
2 Bagian Anak RS DR. Sardjito/Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, Yogyakarta
Pola konsumsi makanan di luar rumah sebagai faktor risiko terjadinya obesitas pada remaja SMP di Kota Palembang
Podojoyo1, Hamam Hadi2, Emy Huriyati2
Background : Teenagers nutriture are complicated because teenagers often ignore meal time, have snacks and do not eat regularly so that eating out such as having fast foods becomes a favorite choice. Prevalence of obesity among teenagers in Yogyakarta is 7.8%, Tangerang 5.01% and Surabaya 6.5%. Changes of eating pattern in the family and habit of eating out at restaurants or food courts are presumed as factors that increase prevalence of obesity at Palembang Municipality.
Objective : To explore prevalence of obesity and identify relationship of eating out pattern among obese and non obese junior high school teenagers at Palembang Municipality.
Methods : First, a survey was done to 1,300 junior high school teenagers at Palembang Municipality to find out prevalence of obesity using cross sectional design with cluster random sampling technique. Next, to find out relationship between eating out consumption pattern and obesity, case control study with simple random sampling technique was used. Total number of samples in case control design was as many as 174 people, matched with age, sex, and grade. The study was conducted in July–December 2005. Data were analyzed using univariable, bivariable, and multivariable techniques.
Result : Prevalence of obesity among junior high school teenagers at Palembang Municipality was 6.62%. There was no significant relationship (p>0.05) between eating out frequency, consumption of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate, and occurence of obesity. There was significant relationship (p<0.05) between total consumption of energy, fat, carbohydrate, frequency of eating in, obese status of parents, social economic status of the family, education of fathers and mothers, and occurence of obesity.
Conclusion : Factors related to occurence of obesity were frequency of eating in, total consumption of energy, obese status of parents and education of fathers. The factor most dominantly related to obesity was frequency of eating in.
Key words : teenagers, obesity, eating out
1 Jurusan Gizi Politeknik Kesehatan Palembang
2 Magister Gizi dan Kesehatan UGM, Yogyakarta
Efek suplementasi kombinasi zat besi, vitamin C, dan asam folat terhadap peningkatan kadar hemoglobin dan kapasitas VO2 maks pada atlet sepak bola divisi utama dan satu nasional di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta
Zainal Abidin1, Woro Kushartati2, M. Noerhadi2
Background : Excessive endurance exercise of football players may break their blood cells and decrease the level of haemoglobin (Hb). These will influence the aerobic capacity (VO2 max) and make the need for iron (Fe) of an athlete more than that of common people.
Objectives : To know the infuence of Fe, vitamin C (ascorbic acid), and folic acid combined supplementation to the increase of VO2 max capacity of the national main and first division club football players in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta.
Methods : The study was RCT (Randomized Controlled Trial) experimental with a completely randomized design plan. The subjects were football players of Perserikatan Sepak Bola Indonesia Mataram (PSIM), Perserikatan Sepak Bola Sleman (PSS), and Perserikatan Sepak Bola Bantul (PERSIBA). They were then divided into two groups: treatment group and control group, each of them consisted of 35 players. Treatment group were given combined supplement capsules of 100 mg Fe, 100 mg vitamin C, and 2 mg folic acid three times a week for eight weeks, while the control group were given the placebo capsules. Before and after supplementation, their Hb and VO2 max were measured. However, the physical exercises were done based on the schedule, programmed by the clubs.
Results : Combined supplementation of Fe, vitamin C, and folic acid could increase Hb level significantly (p=0.008), but there was no significant difference of VO2 max capacity between treatment group and control group (p=0.062). However, there was significant correlation between the increase of Hb level and VO2 max capacity (r=0.712; p<0.001).
Conclusion : Combined supplementation of Fe, vitamin C, and folic acid led to the increase of Hb level of main and first division clubs football players in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, but could not influence their VO2 max capacity.
Key words : combined supplementation, Fe, vitamin C, folic acid, haemoglobin, VO2 max
1 Depjasmil AAU
2 Fakultas Ilmu Keolahragaan UNY, Yogyakarta