ARTIKEL - November 2008, Vol.5, No.2
Jenis kelamin anak, pendidikan ibu, dan motivasi dari guru serta hubungannya dengan preferensi makanan sekolah pada anak prasekolah di TK Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto
Atikah Proverawati1, Endy P. Prawirohartono2, Tjahjono Kuntjoro3
Background : Preference to foods among children is a predictor of food consumption pattern. Therefore good understanding on food preference of children, factors related to foods most likes and disliked needs to be studied for nutrition education and food supply planning for children.
Objective : To find out the relationship between children sex, education of mother, and motivation of teachers with preference to foods available in school among preschool children at Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto.
Method : The study used cross sectional approach by analyzing data of 60 preschool children. Observation and interview were carry out to identify food preference of the children. The independent variables were children sex, education of mothers, and motivation of teachers whereas the dependent variable was preference to foods available in school.
Result : Boys liked jellies and quail egg satay whereas girls liked vegetable filled pastry and cracker fries. The result of chi-square test showed that there was difference in food preference between the girls and boys (p < 0.05). Education of mothers was also related to preference to foods among children.
Conclusion : There were significant relationship between sex and education of mothers with preference to foods available in school among preschool children.
Key words : food preference, preschool, sex of children, education of mothers, motivation of teachers
1 Griya Tegalsari Indah, Jl. Kenanga 1 No. 1 Kelurahan Ledug, Kecamatan Kembaran, Kabupaten Banyumas 53182
Pola makan, asupan zat gizi, dan status gizi anak balita Suku Anak Dalam di Nyogan Kabupaten Muaro Jambi Provinsi Jambi
Erni1, M. Juffrie2, M. Primiaji Rialihanto3
Background : Anak Dalam Tribal Community lives in an isolated area with meagre living pattern and numerous limitations. This condition affects eating pattern and nutritional status of underfives of Anak Dalam Tribe.
Objective : To identify eating pattern, nutrient intake, and nutritional status of underfives of Anak Dalam Tribe at Nyogan, District of Muaro Jambi, Province of Jambi.
Method : The study was observational with cross sectional design. Population of the study were underfives of Anak Dalam Tribe aged 24–59 months at Nyogan, District of Muaro Jambi, Province of Jambi. Data obtained consisted of eating pattern, nutrient intake and nutritional status, characteristics of parents and subject as well as general overview of the location of the study. Chi-square test was used to find out the relationship between nutrient intake and nutritional status.
Result : As much as 54.2% of children of Anak Dalam Tribe had varied types of foods and 52.1% of them had good eating frequency; 45.8% had incomplete types of foods and 47.9% had poor eating frequency. Average energy and protein intake of underfives of Anak Dalam Tribe were 1,020.93 ± 298.68 kcal/day and 28.49 ± 8.08 g/day. Most of the children had adequate energy and protein intake (> 80% nutrition sufficiency); i.e. 60.4% and 77.1% subsequently. Those who had inadequate energy and protein intake were 39.6% and 22.9% subsequently. Inadequate nutritional status of underfives of Anak Dalam Tribe using indicator of weight/age was 16.7%, height/age was 12.5%, and weight/height was 8.3%.
Conclusion : There was significant relationship between nutrient intake (energy and protein) and nutritional status of underfives of Anak Dalam Tribe.
Key words : eating pattern, nutrient intake, nutritional status
1Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Jambi, Jl. R.M. Noer Atmadibrata No. 2 Telanaipura Jambi
3Politeknik Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan RI Yogyakarta, Jl. Tatabumi No. 3 Yogyakarta
Pemberian diet ekstra formula komersial dan diet ekstra filtrat ikan gabus intradialisis serta pengaruhnya terhadap kadar serum albumin dan kreatinin pasien dengan hemodialisis di RSU Dr. Saiful Anwar Malang
Etik Sulistyowati1, Hamam Hadi2, Susetyowati3, Atma Gunawan4
Background : Nowadays chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious health problem because of its increasing incidence. In Indonesia, approximately there are 100 CKD patients per 1 million people per year. Hemodialysis is one of ways to prolong CKD patient’s life that should be done recurrently and for a long time. However, hemodialysis causes loss of nutrients leading to high prevalence of malnutrition among CKD patients. Until today intradialysis diet therapy which can replace loss of nutrients particularly protein has not been initiated as part of diet therapy in Indonesian hospitals. To improve nutritional status and minimize mortality rate, oral intradialysis diet therapy with proper formula is needed.
Objective : To study the effect of the supply of commercial formula and local catfish filtrate extra diet to albumin and creatinine serum level among hemodialysis patients.
Method : The study was experimental with randomized control trial design carried out at Dialysis Installation of Dr. Saiful Anwar Hospital, Malang. There were as many as 36 hemodialysis patients divided into 3 groups; 1 group with standard diet, 1 group with commercial formula and standard diet, and 1 group with local catfish filtrate and standard diet. Data were obtained through interview, note taking, and laboratory tests which consisted of subject characteristics in weight, height, albumin and creatinin serum level as well as food intake one day before, during and one day after hemodialysis. Data analysis was done descriptively and inferentially using chi square, anova, and paired t-test. The conclusion was based on significance level () 0.05 or p < 0.05.
Result : There was no significant difference in the characteristics of the subject at the beginning of the study with average albumin serum level 3.61 ± 0.48 g/dL and creatinine serum level 9.04 ± 2.73 mg/dL. There was no difference in average energy and protein intake of the subject. At the end of the study average albumin serum level was 3.38 ± 0.42 g/dL, creatinine serum level 8.34 ± 3.6 mg/dL, and there was significant difference in albumin serum level (p = 0.000) of the subject. Although there was an increase of creatinine serum level in the group with local catfish filtrate extra diet, it was statistically insignificant.
Conclusion : There was significant effect of the supply of commercial formula and local catfish filtrate extra diet to increase of albumin serum level of the subject and there was no significant effect of the supply of extra diet to creatinine serum level; however, the supply of local catfish filtrate extra diet could maintain creatinine serum level.
Key words: hemodialysis, intradialysis diet therapy, commercial formula, local catfish filtrate, albumin serum, creatinine serum
1 Politeknik Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan R.I. Malang, Jl. Besar Ijen No. 77 C, Malang, e-mail:
4 RSU Dr. Saiful Anwar, Jl. Jaksa Agung Suprapto No. 2, Malang
Pemberian diet modifikasi komersial dan pengaruhnya terhadap asupan makanan dan status gizi pasien penyakit ginjal kronik prehemodialisis di RSUP DR. M. Djamil Padang
Pitri Balgis1, Probosuseno2, Herni Astuti33
Background : Chronic kidney disease causes progressive deterioration of kidney function and is commonly irreversible, leading to nausea and vomiting as a consequence of high ureum and creatinine in the blood. This condition results in declining appetite which greatly affects food intake and degrading nutritional status that causes high mortality among chronic kidney patients. Therefore efforts are made on how to increase intake of chronic kidney patients.
Objective : To identify the effect of nutrition therapy through commercial diet modification to nutrition intake and status of pre-hemodialysis chronic kidney patients at DR. M. Djamil Hospital, Padang.
Method : The study was a quasi experiment which used pre-test and post-test with control group design. Population of the study were all patients of pre-hemodialysis chronic kidney disease hospitalized at DR. M. Djamil Hospital of Padang. Samples were patients of pre-hemodialysis chronic kidney disease at internal medicine ward. The experiment group consisted of 11 patients who got modified diet within 6 days and control group consisted of 11 patients who got hospital standard diet with = 0.05 and ß = 10%. The study were collected from January-March 2008. Data of intake were analyzed using Nutri Survey program. Statistical t-test and chi-square were used to identify the effect of commercial modified diet to food intake, nutritional status, and increase of ureum and creatinine. Absorption level was measured from the quantity of commercial nutrition used. Perception of the patients about commercial diet was obtained through questionnaires and analyzed to get the score.
Result : The group with modified diet had better energy and protein intake than the group with hospital standard diet (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in nutritional status, ureum and creatinine changes between patients who got modified diet and those who got hospital standard diet (p < 0.05). The result of analysis on perception of patients about commercial diet showed that patients could accept commercial diet.
Conclusion : Commercial modified diet could increase intake of energy and protein of pre-hemodialysis chronic kidney patients.
Key words : commercial modified diet, chronic kidney disease, pre-hemodialysis
1 RSD Raden Mattaher Jambi, Jl. Letnan Jenderal Soeprapto No. 31, Telanaipura, Jambi
2 Bagian Penyakit Dalam RSUP Dr. Sardjito, Jl. Kesehatan, Yogyakarta 55281
3 Instalasi Gizi RSUP Dr. Sardjito, Jl. Kesehatan, Yogyakarta 55281
Pengelolaan data dan informasi status gizi balita dan pengambilan keputusan program gizi di puskesmas se-Kabupaten Majene
Shafwan1, Hari Kusnanto2, Anis Fuad2
Background : Improved nutritional status is needed throughout the life cycle including children under five. Of age in formulating suitable policies for nutrition improvement program, decision makers require relevant information about nutritional status of the community. The implementation of health information system at District of Majene is not yet optimum. There are some problems such as inaccurate data, inconsistent or unreliable data, delay in data reporting, and processing and presentation of data are rarely made, reporting is done as routine disregarding data quality, there is no feedback from the health office and so on. Decentralization has offered an opportunity for the health center to make its own policy in optimizing nutrition improvement program. However, health centers at District of Majene have never made decisions based on evidence.
Objective : The study aimed to get an overview of data and information management of nutritional status of children under five comprising availability, processing, presentation of data, and the decision making of nutrition program at the health centers of District of Majene.
Methods : This was a descriptive case study with qualitative method. Subjects of the study were nutrition staff of the health centers, head of health centers, and head of nutrition section of district health office with health centers and head of health office as analysis units. Data were obtained through indepth interview, focus group discussion, questionnaire, observation, and documentation.
Result : Data and information on nutritional status of children under five years of age were available in all health centers; however format of reporting was unavailable. Data in LB3 accurate, in FIII/gizi and SKDN were inaccurate because there was data manipulation and cadres had limited skills. Data were not valid because there was no signature of head of the health center in the report. Data in FIII/gizi and SKDN reliable, in LB3 not reliable because there was no coordination among staff. Data in SKDN were completed, in FIII/gizi and LB3 incomplete because some of the forms were blank. Data were not provided timely due to less commited cadres, geographical factors, and lack of pressure from the health office. Data were accessible because staff were active in maintaining records. Data were processed manually and presented in the form of narratives, tables and graphs. Decisions made were socialization, counseling, growth monitoring and complementary breastfeeding distribution monitoring. However, they were not based on data so that reports were only made as routine activities.
Conclusion :Data and information on nutritional status of children under five years of age were available at the health centers with quality data in every format of reporting of various kinds. Data and information were processed manually and presented in the form of narratives, tables, and graphs. Decisions made were socialization, counseling, growth monitoring, and complementary breastfeeding distribution monitoring. Decisions made were not based on data available.
Key words : data and information, nutrition information, decision making
1 Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Majene, Jl. R.A. Kartini No. 7 Majene, Provinsi Sulawesi Barat 91412, e-mail:
2 Magister Sistem Informasi Manajemen Kesehatan, Gedung IKM Lt 3, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281
Asupan yodium dan asupan goitrogenik hubungannya dengan status gangguan akibat kekurangan yodium (GAKY) pada anak sekolah dasar di Kabupaten Dairi Provinsi Sumatra Utara
Urbanus Sihotang1, Toto Sudargo2, Dhuto Widagdo3
Background : Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is a health problem which affects the quality of human resources. IDD is caused by lack of iodine substance. The substance is needed for numerous syntheses and metabolism in the body, particularly thyroid glands. IDD may also be caused by high consumption goitrogenic substance.
Objectives : The study was meant to identify relationship between iodine and thiocyanate intake and IDD, and to identify differences in iodine and thiocyanate intake based on endemic level.
Methods : This was an observational study with cross sectional design. Method used were palpation of goiter glands to measure endemic level, food recall, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to measure iodine and thiocyanate intake, ammonium persulfate digestion to measure urine iodine excretion. Data analysis used chi-square, Pearson correlation and anova.
Results : The result of chi-square analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between iodine intake and IDD (p > 0.05, CI 95%: 0,34–1,18), but there was significant relationship between iodine intake and urine iodine excretion (p < 0.05, CI 95%: 2.2–7.2) with OR 3.9. There was significant relationship between IDD and thiocyanate intake (p < 0.05, CI 95%: 3.0–11.3) with OR 5.9, but there was no significant relationship between thiocyanate intake and urine iodine excretion (p > 0.05, CI 95%: 0.48–1.97). The result of Pearson correlation test showed that there was no significant relationship between iodine and thiocyanate FFQ and IDD (p > 0.05); there was no significant relationship (but there was a tendency) between thiocyanate FFQ and IDD (p > 0.05). There were significant differences in iodine intake, thiocyanate intake, iodine FFQ and thiocyanate FFQ based on endemic level (p > 0.05).
Conclusion : There was relationship between iodine intake and IDD/non-IDD, but there was relationship between urine iodine excretion and IDD. Children with IDD had higher consumption of thiocyanate than those who did not have IDD. There were differences in all measurements based on endemic level.
Key words : iodine deficiency disorder, iodine intake, thiocyanate intake, urine iodine excretion, food frequency questionnaire
1 Politeknik Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan RI Medan Jurusan Gizi, Simpang Tanjung Garbus Lubuk Pakam, Kabupaten Deli Serdang, Sumatra Utara
3 Balai Penelitian Pengembangan GAKY, Jayan, Borobudur, Kabupaten Magelang, Jawa Tengah