ARTIKEL - November 2009, Vol.6, No.2
Pola asuh ibu sebagai faktor risiko kejadian kurang energi protein (KEP) pada anak balita
Adni Abdul Razak1, I Made Alit Gunawan2, R. Dwi Budiningsari3
Background : Protein energy deficiency (PED) is one of nutrition disorders which happen to children under five years. According to data of nutritional status examination result 2005 and 2006, the prevalence of PED at the Province of Sulawesi Tengah was 30.61% and 30.84%, whereas at District of Morowali was 11% and 11.6%. Lots of factors cause malnutrition among children under five, among others are imbalanced nutrient intake, infection, and rearing pattern of mothers comprising care and food supply.
Objective : To identify rearing pattern of mothers as risk factor for the prevalence of PED in children under five.
Method : This was an observational study with case control study design. Population and samples of the study were children under five suffering from PED as indicated from anthropometric standard weight for age according to standard of WHO National Child Health Standard (NCHS), i.e. < -2 elemantary school to ³ -3 elementary school. The controls were children under five who did not suffer from PED. Respondents consisted of mothers of children who had PED and did not have PED that fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. The variables observed were rearing pattern, infection as confounding variable and nutritional status. Nutritional status of children with PED and without PED was processed using index of weight for age against standard of WHO-NCHS. Chi-square and odds ratio were used to identify rearing pattern as risk factor for PED.
Result : The result of the study showed that there were 23 mothers (57.5%) practising poor rearing pattern in children with PED and there were 35 mothers (87.5%) practising good rearing pattern in children without PED. The result of statistical test showed p < 0.05, i.e. p = 0.001, so there was significant difference in rearing pattern of mothers which consisted of knowledge, attitude and practice in the care and food supply of children under five.
Conclusion : Poor rearing pattern of mothers brought greater risk for children with PED than good rearing pattern in the care and food supply of children under five.
Key words : protein energy defficiency, rearing pattern
1 Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Morowali Sulawesi Tengah, Komplek Perkantoran Bumi Fonuasingko Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Morowali Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah
2Jurusan Gizi Politeknik Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan RI Yogyakarta, Jl. Tatabumi No. 3, Yogyakarta
Pola asuh, pola makan, asupan zat gizi dan hubungannya dengan status gizi anak balita masyarakat Suku Nuaulu di Kecamatan Amahai Kabupaten Maluku Tengah Provinsi Maluku
Muhamad Asrar1, Hamam Hadi2, Dradjat Boediman3
Background JNomadic life of Nuaulu Tribe results in rearing pattern, eating pattern, and food consumption which affects their nutritional status.
Objective : To identify the relationship between rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake, and nutritional status of under fives of Nuaulu tribal community at Subdistrict of Amahai, District of Maluku Tengah, Province of Maluku.
Method : This was an observational analytical study with cross sectional design. Subjects of the study were 68 under fives of age 12 to 60 months from Nuaulu Tribal community at Sub district of Amahai. Data of rearing pattern were obtained from interviewing using questionnaire, data of eating pattern from food frequency questionnaire, data of nutrient intake from recall 24 hours, and data of nutritional status from anthropometric measurement. Data analysis used bivariable with chi-square, multivariate with double logistic regression.
Result : Most samples had low category of rearing pattern (77.9%) and eating pattern (66.2%); whereas samples intake of energy and protein belonged to adequate category, that were 73.6% and 72.0%, respectively. Nutritional status based on index of weight/age of 20.6% samples belonged to undernourished category and 51.5% samples belonged to stunted category based on index of length/age. There were no significant relationship between rearing pattern and nutritional status based on index of weight/length and weight/age (p > 0.05), but there was relationship between them based on index of length/age (p < 0.05). Eating pattern and nutritional status based on index of weight/length and weight/age had no relationship (p > 0.05), but between eating pattern and nutritional status based on index of length/age had relationship (p < 0,05). There was significant relationship between energy intake and nutritional status based on index of weight/age and length/age (p < 0.05), but there was not based on weight/length index (p > 0.05). There was significant relationship between protein intake and nutritional status based on index of weight/age and length/age (p < 0.05); however the relationship was insignificant based on index of weight/length.
Conclusion : There was significant relationship between rearing pattern and nutritional status based on index of length/age and so was between eating pattern and nutritional status based index of length/age. Energy, protein intake and nutritional status based on index of weight/age and length/age also had significant relationship.
Key words : rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake, nutritional status, underfives, Nuaulu Tribe
1Jurusan Gizi Politeknik Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan RI Ambon, Jl. Laksda Leo Wattimena (Negeri Lama), Ambon Maluku
3Bagian Anak RSUP Dr. Sardjito, Jl. Kesehatan, Yogyakarta
Determinan keberhasilan program suplementasi zat besi pada siswi sekolah
Dodik Briawan1, Ari Adriyani2, Pusporini3
Background : The iron supplementation program is implemented in many countries for improving the iron status. However, this program is not always successfully reducing the prevalence of anemia due to the various factors.
Objective : To determined the success factors of iron supplementation program at the female school students.
Method : The program of iron supplementation at the school was run by the Health Office of Bekasi City. The pre-post design study was applied among junior and senior high school female students. The variables collected were age, health status, menstrual pattern, hand washing habit, body mass index, capsule compliance, and food consumption. The hemoglobin (Hb) was measured by cyanmethemoglobin method. The logistic regression was applied to analyses the determinant factors.
Result : The prevalence of anemia among female students was decreased by 3.4% after four month of supplementation. However, its result was different between the junior and senior high school students, in fact the prevalence of anemia at the junior students was increased. The number of students at the junior high school who decreased in haemoglobin and became anemia were more than the senior high school. The logistic regression analyses showed that the success determinant of iron supplementation program were students not anemic before supplementation (OR = 10.81; 90% CI: 7.04-16.50) and they used to hand washing (OR = 11.22; 90% CI: 1.90-64.60).
Conclusion : After the iron supplementation program, the decrease prevalence of anemia was different between the junior and senior high school students. The determinants of success program were hand washing habits and the anemia status before supplementation.
Key words: anemia, female students, iron supplementation, success determinant
1Departemen Gizi Masyarakat Fakultas Ekologi Manusia (FEMA), IPB, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor, e-mail:
3 Seksi Kesehatan Keluarga Dinas Kesehatan Kota Bekasi, Jl. Jenderal Sudirman No.3 Kota Bekasi
Asupan kalsium, vitamin D, kafein, merokok, indeks massa tubuh dan hubungannya dengan kejadian osteoporosis pada pria di Kecamatan Duren Sawit, Jakarta Timur
Eka Susanti1, I.D.P. Pramantara2, Retno Pangastuti3
Background : Osteoporosis can cause public health problem because both man and woman have high risk factor for osteoporosis. This is related to high morbidity and mortality of man. The increase of elderly population intensifies the frequency of the prevalence of osteoporosis, which limits activities of the patients.
Objective : To identify the relationship between calcium, vitamin D, and caffeine intake, smoking, and mass body index with osteoporosis among elderly men.
Method : This study was analytical observational which used cross sectional design. Subject of the study were men of 55–65 years old purposively chosen. The study was carried out at Sub district of Duren Sawit, Jakarta Timur. Result: There was no significant relationship between calcium intake and bone mass density (p > 0.05). There was no significant relationship between vitamin D intake and bone mass density (p > 0.05), smoking and bone mass density (p > 0.05), and caffeine consumption and bone mass density (p > 0.05). There was a significant relationship between body mass index and osteoporosis (p < 0.05).
Conclusion : The relationship between calcium and vitamin D intake, smoking, caffeine consumption, and osteoporosis was insignificant. The relationship between body mass index and osteoporosis was significant.
Key words : osteoporosis in men, calcium, vitamin D, smoking, caffeine, body mass index
1 Poliklinik KIAS Kencana BKKBN, Jl. Permata No. 1 Halim Perdana Kusuma, Jakarta Timur 13650, e-mail:
2 Bagian Penyakit Dalam RSUP Dr. Sardjito, Jl. Kesehatan, Yogyakarta
3 Instalasi Gizi RSUP Dr. Sardjito, Jl. Kesehatan, Yogyakarta
Tekanan darah siswa sekolah dasar obes dan tidak obes di Kota Yogyakarta
Emy Huriyati1, Madarina Julia2
Background : In adulthood, obesity is related to the increasing of mortality risk as the effect of cardiovascular diseases. Adulthood obesity are often started from childhood. Besides obesity causes, risk of cardiovascular is influenced by blood pressure as well.
Objective : The study was proposed to compare blood pressure of obese and non-obese students.
Methods : The study was conducted among 52 obese and 52 non-obese students aged 9–12 yearls old matched with age and sex. Subjects were obtained through obesity screening among obese students. The criteria of obesity was BMI to age in or over 95 percentage of CDC 2000 standard. Blood pressure was measured three times at three different days with quicksilver sphygmomanometer. Its method was adjusted to Task Force on Blood Pressure in Children instruction.
Result : Mean of systolic blood pressure of obese students was 109.2 (6.0) mmHg, higher than non-obese, 89.4 (6.9) mmHg. The different mean (CI 95%) of systolic blood pressure of both group was 19.9 (17.3-22.4) mmHg, p < 0.001. Mean of diastolic blood pressure of obese students was 72.4 (4.9) mmHg, while non-obese was 58.1 (8.1) mmHg. The different mean (CI 95%) of diastolic blood pressure of both group was 14.3 (11.6-16.9) mmHg, p < 0.001. Obese students had relative risk of systolic blood pressure (CI 95%) 22.5 (5.8-88.0) times higher than non-obese students. Relative risk of diastolic blood pressure of obese students (CI 95%) was 3.7 (2.4-5.8) times higher than that of non-obese students.
Conclusion : Systolic and diastolic blood pressures of obese students were higher than that of non-obese students.
Key words : blood pressure, systolic, diastolic, student, obese
1 Program Studi Gizi Kesehatan UGM, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, e-mail:
Ekstrak air daun ceplikan (Ruellia tuberosa L.) serta pengaruh-nya terhadap kadar glukosa darah dan gambaran histologis pankreas tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus) diabetes mellitus
Taufan Hendra Tandri1, Wiryatun Lestariana2, Fatma Zuhrotun Nisa3
Background : Effective control of blood glucose and activities of antioxidant are key factors that prevent diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. There are lots of herbal plants that have those both effects. Ceplikan leaves (Ruellia tuberosa L.) is a traditional medicine which is empirically used to lower blood glucose level. Instead of antioxidant compound, there is assumed other compound in ceplikan leaves that has side effect to pancreatic beta cells.
Objectives : To identify the effect of ceplikan leaves extract to blood glucose level and pancreas histology description in white diabetic rats (Rattus norvegicus).
Methods : Thirty subjects of Wistar strain male white rats of 2-3 months old and of 150-200 grams weight were made diabetic with aloxan and randomly divided into 5 groups. Group I consisted of diabetic rats with aquadest, group II with glibenclamide, and Group III-V were given extract of ceplikan leaves in different concentrations that were 1.6 mg, 3.2 mg, and 6.4mg, respectively. Treatment was given orally per day within 30 days. Level of blood glucose was measured in the day of 0, 3, 4, and 30. Statistical analysis used repeated measures and t-test.
Results : The supply of ceplikan leaves extract could reduce level of blood glucose of diabetic rats, although the decrease was insignificant. Average diameter of wider Langerhans island occurred to the group of diabetic rats that were given extract of ceplikan leaves dosage 6.4 mg. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in changes of blood glucose level before and after experiment in diabetic rats. Pancreas histological description of rats showed that there was improvement as indicated by greater quantity of Langerhans island and wider diameter of Langerhans island.
Conclusion : Ceplikan leaves was safe and efficacious, so that self medication of DM using ceplikan leaves could be sustained through formal approach.
Key words : extract, Ruellia tuberosa L., ceplikan leaves, blood glucose, pancreas histology, diabetes mellitus
1 Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Tojo Una Una, Jl. Sultan Hasanudin No. 115 Ampana 94683, e-mail:
2 Bagian Biokima Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, Jl Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281
Pola makan, rasio lingkar pinggang pinggul (RLPP) dan tekanan darah di Puskesmas Mergangsan Yogyakarta
Putu Diah Ernitasari1, Bambang Djarwoto2, Tri Siswati3
Background : Dietary pattern has changed in almost all over the world that nowadays people consume high fat and low fiber diet. These changes are responsible for the increased obesity problems in community. Ratio between waist circumference and hip circumference could become an indicator for android obesity. This type of obesity has a stronger relationship with increasing risk factor of coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, compared to gynecoid type obesity.
Objectives : To identify relationship between dietary pattern and waist hip circumference ratio with blood pressure at Mergangsan Primary Health Care Yogyakarta.
Methods : This was an observational research with cross sectional study, held at November 2008. Research population was all adult patients came to Mergangsan Primary Health Care. Independent variable including dietary pattern and hip waist circumference ratio (RLPP), and blood pressure as dependent variable. Characteristic sample data were collected using questionnaire and interview, data of waist–hip circumference ratio were collected using metlin (accuracy 0.1 cm), data of blood pressure were measured with sphygmomanometer, and data of dietary patterns were collected using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQS). Samples were taken with judgmental technique sampling. Data were analyzed using chi-square and odds ratio.
Results : Percentage samples that consumed carbohydrate source diet frequently was 91.1%, whereas samples that consumed animal and plant diet served were 71 % and 88.9%; vegetables and fruits 65.6% and 52.5%, 78.9% samples seldom consumed milk, 92.2% frequently consumed oil and others consumed frequently 90%. Female samples with obesity nutritional status were 55.6%. Mean value of waist hip circumference ratio were 1.03 ± 0.13 and 0.88 ± 0.1 for male and female, respectively. Dietary pattern of some foods and blood pressure showed significant relationship, that were vegetables (p = 0.003; OR = 0.194), fruits (p = 0.00, OR = 1.17), milk (p = 0.010; OR 5.76), and others (p = 0.047;OR 5.76). Waist hip circumference ratio also had significant relationship with blood pressure (p = 0.009).
Conclusion : There were significant relationships between dietary pattern of vegetables, fruits, milk, and others with blood pressure. Waist hip circumference ratio also had significant relationship with blood pressure.
Key words : dietary patterns, waist hip circumference ratio, blood pressure
1 Jl. Drupadi 5, Denpasar, e-mail:
2 Bagian Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281