ARTIKEL - Juli 2011, Vol.8, No.1
Tingkat konsumsi garam beryodium dan kaitannya dengan gangguan akibat kekurangan yodium ibu hamil
Tri Endang Irawati11, Hamam Hadi2, Untung Widodo3
Background : Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is one of main nutrition problems which cannot be eliminated until now in Indonesia. Total goiter rate (TGR) of school children increased from 9.8% in 1998 to 11.1% in 2003. In Gunung Kidul District, TGR of school was 12.2% and of pregnant mothers was 18.4% in 1996. One of efforts to overcome IDD is salt iodization. Result of a national survey of household iodized salt consumption in 2002 showed that only 68.53% of households consumed sufficient level of iodized salt, while salt monitoring at Gunung Kidul District in 2003 showed that only 73.08% of households consumed sufficient level of iodized salt. The low rate of consumption level of iodized salt may be caused by availability of salt with low iodine level (not as high as mentioned in the label), higher price of iodized salt and lack of knowledge about types and benefits of iodized salt among mothers.
Objective : To identify consumption level of iodized salt and IDD status of pregnant mothers at IDD endemic area at Gunung Kidul District.
Method : The study was an observational type which used cross sectional design with both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Subject of the study were pregnant mothers at their second trimester pregnancy.
Result : Availability of iodized salt according to: quality was 81.1% low and 18.9% sufficient; types of salt was 17.6% coorse, 77.8% bricket, and 4.6% fine salt; price was 69.0% high and 31.0% not high; taste was 36.8% bitter and 63.2% not bitter. Analysis result of Pearson Chi-Square with Odds Ratio showed that there was relationship between quality and types of salt with consumption level of iodized salt in the household (p<0.05) with OR=20.50 for quality, and OR=43 for types. There was relationship between salt consumption level of urine iodine excretion with p<0.05 and OR=2.604. Median of urine iodine excretion level was 86.1?g/l which belonged to category of light IDD endemic area and there had been no change of endemic area status since 1996.
Conclusion : There was significant relationship between quality and types of salt with consumption level of iodized salt. There was relationship between iodized salt consumption level and IDD. Iodized salt program was not yet effective and supply of iodine capsules should go on until it reached use of good iodized salt.
Key words : IDD, urine iodine excretion, iodized salt
1 Instalasi Gizi RSUPN DR.Cipto Mangunkusumo, Jl. Diponegoro No 71, Jakarta Pusat
3 Balai Penelitian Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium (BP GAKI), Kavling Jayen Borobudur, Kabupaten Magelang, Jawa Tengah
FULL TEXT click here
Pelayanan antenatal care dalam pengelolaan anemia berhubungan dengan kepatuhan ibu hamil minum tablet besi
Subarda1, Muhammad Hakimi2, Siti Helmyati3
Background : The prevalence of pregnant women with anemia is still one of nutrition problems in Indonesia. The main cause of this case is low iron supplementation compliance as the effect of lack of antenatal care (ANC) services and lack promotion of anemia prevention and iron tablet benefit.
Objective : The study was aimed to know the relationship between ANC services in anemia management with iron supplementation compliance of pregnant women.
Method : The study was observational with cross sectional design. Subjects were 202 pregnant women in the II–III trimester period in Asahan District. Sampling interpretation was randomly performed by choosing 3 sub-districts with K4 ? 85% and ? 85% coverage. Data collection was carried out by interview based on structured questionnaire and KIA literature study while validity of iron supplementation compliance using stool test. Data analysed using chi-square and logistic regressions test.
Result : The result showed that 41.1% of pregnant women were complied. Based on chi-square test, there were four significant variables related to pregnant women’s compliance namely ANC services (ratio prevalence 1.82; CI95%: 1.22-2.70), anemia assessment (ratio prevalence 1.79; CI95%: 1.22-2.64), nutrition consultation (ratio prevalence 1.41; CI95%: 1.12-1.76) and knowledge (ratio prevalence 1.42; CI95%: 1.12-1.79). Meanwhile logistic regressions test showed that the most influencing variable was ANC services (OR 3.125) after controlling knowledge variable.
Conclusion : There were positive relationship between ANC services, anemia assessment, and nutrition consultation with iron supplementation compliance.
Key words : ANC services, iron supplementation compliance, pregnant women
1 Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Asahan, Jl. Sisingamangaraja No 311, Kisaran, Sumatra Utara 21214, e-mail:
Senam bugar lansia berpengaruh terhadap daya tahan jantung paru, status gizi, dan tekanan darah1
Sri Thristyaningsih2, Probosuseno3, Herni Astuti4
Background : Aging that happens naturally in human life does not only cause physical dysfunction but also have an impact to mental and social aspects. In the elderly there is a problem of degenerative disease. Hypertension has become a serious health problem and a major challenge of public health worldwide because of either high prevalence or major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Pharmacological as well as non pharmacological efforts have been made to prevent and cure the disease, however until today the growing number of hypertensive patients has not been successfully controlled. Consequently behavioral intervention has to be made to cure hypertensive patients. One of the recommended interventions is fitness exercise for the elderly.
Objective : The study aimed to identify the effect of fitness exercise to increasing stamina of heart and lung, nutrition status and reduced blood pressure of hypertensive elderly at integrated service post of Subdistrict of Pahandut, Palangkaraya Municipality.
Method : The study was a experiment (before and after) without control group using one group pre test post test study design. Subject of the study was a group with pre experimental, evaluation, effect of variables and post experimental evaluation. Measurement was made in week two, three and four to blood pressure, heart and lung stamina, nutrition status of hypertensive elderly, discipline in exercise and food recall 24 hours. The interventions made were lecture and fitness exercise package D for the elderly.
Result : There was significant association between elderly fitness exercise and systolic blood pressure, heart and lung stamina and nutrition status of hypertensive elderly (p<0.05). Result of Wilcoxon signed ranks test and paired sample test between gymnastic elderly on increase of endure capacity heart lung are significantly associated (p=0,001) and so on nutritional status (p=0,002) and decrease sistolik tension (p=0,001) and diastolic tension (p=0,002).
Conclusion : There was significant association between elderly fitness exercise and the increase of heart and lung stamina, nutrition status and the decrease of blood pressure in hypertensive elderly.
Key words: elderly fitness exercise, stamina, heart and lung, nutrition status, blood pressure, elderly.
1 Dipresentasikan pada International Dietetic Update pada tanggal 15-17 Oktober 2009 di Yogyakarta kerjasama dengan Asosiasi Dietisien Indonesia, Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia, dan Prodi Gizi Kesehatan FK-UGM serta didanai oleh Pendidikan Tinggi Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional.
3 Bagian Penyakit Dalam Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara Yogyakarta 55281
4 Instalasi Gizi RSUP Dr. Sardjito, Jl. Kesehatan, Yogyakarta 55281
Senam aerobik dan konsumsi zat gizi serta pengaruhnya terhadap kadar kolesterol total darah wanita
Siti Fatimah1, Apoina Kartini2
Background : Hypercholesterolemia is a condition in which levels of cholesterol in the blood above normal levels (? 240 mg/dl). Physical exercises done regularly useful in the regulation of cholesterol, is a total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood decreased, while HDL cholesterol increased. Food an important role in association with the incident hipercholesterolemia.
Objective : The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aerobic exercise on blood total cholesterol level of adult women in the city of Semarang.
Method : This research was explanatory research with cross sectional study. Sample were women aged 20-49 years gymnastic participants, as a comparison group was a housewife who was not doing gymnastics. Twenty three samples for group2 by matching on nutritional status and age and with the sampling purposive sampling. Adequacy levels of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and also vitamins A and C was obtained through 2x24-hour recall was not a sequence, and processed using nutrisurvey. Results of independent t-test used to determine the effect of cholesterol levels between groups, and chi square test was used to determine association with nutrient adequacy levels of total cholesterol.
Result : The results showed no significant difference in mean total cholesterol level between groups of gymnastic participants (201.2 g/dl) with housewife group (208.3 g/dl). Housewife group belonging to hypercholesterolemia by 52.2%, while in group of exercise participants at 43.5%. Sufficiency level of protein showed a role in the total cholesterol level of adult women.
Conclusion :The aerobic gymnastics did not affect total cholesterol. Moderate level of protein adequacy contributes to the total cholesterol level of adult women.
Key words : aerobic exercise, total cholesterol, nutrition adequate level, adult women
1 Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Diponegoro, Kampus Tembalang Semarang Jl. Prof. Sudarto SH Tembalang, Semarang 50239, Telp (024) 7460044, e-mail:
2 Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Diponegoro, Kampus Tembalang Semarang Jl. Prof. Sudarto SH Tembalang, Semarang 50239, Telp (024) 7460044
Sarapan dan jajan berhubungan dengan kemampuan konsentrasi pada remaja
Mohammad Muchtar1, Madarina Julia2, Indria Laksmi Gamayanti3
Background : Adolescence is a phase that a human has to pass through in life to become an adult. Bureau of Statistical Centre (1999) reported that total number of adolescent people from 10-19 years old group in Indonesia is about 22% of its total population. High school adolescent often does not have breakfast due to many different reasons such as being in a hurry when going to the school. Breakfast is able to provide carbohydrate for increasing blood glucose supply. In a normal blood glucose supply, passion and concentration as a student would be better so that it makes positive impact to raise productivity.
Objective : This study aimed to define correlation between breakfast and have snack at break time habit with concentration capability on high school adolescent in Palangka Raya city.
Methods : This study was an observational research in cross sectional design. The number of research subject for prevalence test were 106 students for not breakfast group which in screening result were not in anemic condition, while for hypothesis test the mean difference for the two independent groups the total number of subject were 80 persons that consist of 40 subjects for breakfast group and 40 subjects for not breakfast group. Data collection was obtained from body weight and height measurement to explore nutritional status; food recall method to give information of breakfast and have snack at break time, energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat intake; digit symbol and digit span test to explore concentration capability to visual and audio information. The data was processed and analyzed in analytic descriptive way using Spearman correlation test and t-test.
Result : This study indicated that 37.7% - 38.8% adolescent in SMAN 1 Pahandut Palangka Raya did not have breakfast. Analytical statistic result showing adolescent who has breakfast has significantly higher concentration capability (using digit symbol and digit span test) than adolescent group who did not have breakfast (p<0.05). Having snack at break time adolescent group had significantly higher concentration capability by using digit symbol test than adolescent group who did not have snack at break time (p<0.05).
Conclusion : There was correlation between breakfast and have snack at break time with concentration capability on high school adolescent
Key words : breakfast, have snack at break time, nutritional status, adolescent, concentration capability
1 Politeknik Kesehatan Kemenkes Palangkaraya Jurusan Gizi, Jl. George Obos No. 30 Palangkaraya, e-mail:
3 Instalasi Kesehatan Anak RSUP Dr. Sardjito, Jl. Kesehatan, Yogyakarta 55281
Kebiasaan minum dan asupan cairan remaja di perkotaan
Dodik Briawan1, Tyas Rara Sedayu2, Ikeu Ekayanti1
Background : Human body requires water for the active and healthy life. Water is actually a nutrient, and there is a tendency that some people neglect its important roles for health. Water requirements can vary depends on physical activity, age groups, body weight, climate, and diet (energy intake).
Objectives : The study aimed to identify drinking habits and to assess water intake and its adequacy of teenagers in urban.
Methods : Cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2009 in high school SMAN 2 Bogor. The samples were healthy student at grade X and XI. The number of sample were 83 students which calculated based on mean estimation. Food and beverages consumption was assessed with 2 x 24 hours recall during a week-day and a week-end. Meanwhile, the last week drinking habits was collected by interviewed. Statistical analysis used here was independent t-test.
Results : The average of water intake was 2582 ± 834 ml, whereas 2939 ± 922 ml for boys and 2250 ± 581 ml for girls. The total water intake was from solid foods (656 ± 265 ml) and beverages (1927 ± 704 ml). The contribution of drinking water to the total water intake was 51% for boys (1495 ml) and 58% for girls (1311 ml). The average water adequacy was 132% for boys and 111% for girls.
Conclusion : The average of water intake was considerly adequate in teenagers, however there was still 24.1% of them consumed less than 90% of water adequacy.
Key words : teenagers, water intake, drinking habits, urban
1 Departemen Gizi Masyarakat, Fakultas Ekologi Manusia Institut Pertanian Bogor (FEMA-IPB), Jl. Lingkar Kampus, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, e-mail:
2 Rumah Sakit Siti Khodijah, Jl Pahlawan No 260 Sepanjang, Sidoarjo, Jawa Timur.
Persepsi mahasiswa Program Studi Gizi Kesehatan terhadap citra tubuh ahli gizi
Agustina Arundina Triharja Tejoyuwono1, Toto Sudargo2, Retna Siwi Padmawati3
Background : As health professionals, nutritionists are supposed to have good body image, although nutritionists may be overweight or obese. Body image of nutritionists will determine the quality of nutrition service particularly in giving evidence and assurance to the clients. As nutritionist-to-be, nutrition students are expected to have good knowledge and appearance because these will reflect quality of nutritionists in the future.
Objectives : To identify perception of students of health nutrition study program of the Faculty of Medicine about body image of nutritionists.
Methods : The study used qualitative descriptive method and case study design. It was carried out in Yogyakarta from October to December 2008. Subject of the study were 23 undergraduate students of Health Nutrition Study Program of Gadjah Mada University of both class A and B. Data were obtained through focus group discussion and indepth interview. Data validity and reliability used source and method triangulation to 7 lectures of health nutrition Gadjah Mada University.
Results : Body image was someone’s physical appearance as viewed by oneself or others and the effect of mass media in the assessment of body image was relatively significant. Body image of nutritionists was important because it would affect trust of the clients and success in counseling. Nutritionists had responsibility in giving an exemplary healthy life to the community either in physical image or appearance so that nutritionists were supposed to have ideal body posture and good body performance.
Conclusion : Good body image for nutritionists would determine quality of counseling and trust of the clients. Nutritionists had responsibility to give an exemplary healthy life to the community. Therefore it was necessary to do monitoring and socialization from the academics as well as related institutions such as association of nutritionists about body image of nutritionists and nutrition students from now on and in the future.
Key words : perception, nutrition students, body image, nutritionists
1 Program Studi Pendidikan Kedokteran, Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan Universitas Tanjungpura, Jl. A. Yani Pontianak 78124, e-mail:
3Magister Kebijakan Kesehatan dan Pelayanan Kesehatan, Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281