ARTIKEL - Oktober 2011, Vol.8, No.2
Ibu hamil perokok pasif sebagai faktor risiko bayi berat lahir rendah
Irnawati1, Mohammad Hakimi2, Tunjung Wibowo3
Background : Low birth weigth babies (LBW) are most likely a cause of the infant mortality and morbidity. Many factors causes LBW babies as maternal health, behavior during pregnancy, environmental as well as fetal and placental factors. Negative behavior during pregnancy such as exposure of cigarette smoke can affect the body’s supply of oxygen from mother to fetus and placenta. Exposure to cigarette smoke may also reduce maternal folic acid level which causes disruption of fetal growth inside the womb.
Objective : This study was aimed to find out the risk of low birth weight baby in the passive smoker pregnant woman.
Method : The study used a case control design. The subject consisted of mothers who delivered at RSU dr. Zainoel Abidin in Banda Aceh municipality. The case group were mothers who delivered babies of less than 2,500 grams and the control group were those who delivered babies of 2,500 grams or more. Each group consisted of 105 mothers (1:1). Sample were taken using non probability with consecutive sampling method. Data analysis used univariable method with frequency distribution, bivariable with chi square and multivariable with logistic regression.
Result : Passive smoker pregnant woman exposed the 1-10 cigarettes a day had risk 2,4 times greater of getting low birth weight baby (OR=2,42; 95%CI 1,24-4,71). Pregnant mother exposed to > 11 cigarettes a day had the risk 3,1 times greates in having LBW infants than those not exposed (OR=3,1; 95%CI 1,50-6,70).
Conclusion : Passive smoker of pregnant mother increased the risk of low birth weight babies.
Key words : risk, low birth weight baby, passive smoker, pregnant woman
1 Poltekkes Kemenkes Aceh Jurusan Kebidanan, Jl. Tsyarief Thayeb Lamprit, Banda Aceh, e-mail:
3 Bagian Obsetri dan Ginekologi RSUP Dr. Sardjito, Jl. Kesehatan, Yogyakarta 55281
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Pengaruh inisiasi menyusu dini terhadap praktik menyusui 1 bulan pertama
Legawati1, Djaswadi Dasuki2, Madarina Julia3
Background : The period of the first month of life is a critical moment for the sustainability of breastfeeding practices. Therefore optimal efforts are needed to maintain the breastfeeding practices. Early initiation of breastfeeding can help increase maternal confidence and support psychological condition of mothers in order to continue breastfeeding practices.
Objective : To evaluate the impact of the early initiation of breastfeeding on breastfeeding practices in the first month of infant life.
Method : The study was observational with cohort prospective study design using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Samples were 106 pairs of mothers and babies. The group from Pahandut Public Health Center (PHC) consisted of 53 women with early initiation of breastfeeding (exposed group) and the group from Tangkiling PHC consisted of 53 women without early initiation of breastfeeding (non exposed group). In both groups, dissemination on early initiation of complete breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding practices followed with one month breastfeeding practices was given. The quantitative data analysis was done in three stages. In addition, qualitative data analysis used exploration of in depth interview.
Result : The result of mutivariable analysis with modeling showed that there was a significant relationship between early initiation of breastfeeding and breastfeeding practices in the first month of life (by controlling the variables of the decision to breastfeed, nipple condition, residence and gestational age) that could give contribution as much as 49% for breastfeeding practices in the first month of life. The result of in depth interview showed that breastfeeding practices were highly influenced by information obtained by the women when checking up their pregnancy so that the decision to breastfeed could be made in advance and the women perceived the benefit of breastfeeding practices for her and her infant’s health. There were some reasons why the mother did not give complete breastfeeding, among others were the abnormal nipple condition and the mother’s fear on her child’s health for preterm baby.
Conclusion : Breastfeeding practices in the first month of life occured more in mothers who practiced early initiation of breastfeeding than in those who did not. Mothers with at term delivery, nipple normal condition, breastfeeding decision prior to delivery, and residence in rural areas had greater chance of practicing breastfeeding in the first month of life.
Key words : early initiation of breastfeeding, breastfeeding practices, complete breastfeeding
1 Poltekkes Kemenkes Palangkaraya Jurusan Kebidanan, Jl.George Obos No.30 Palangka Raya, e-mail:
2 Magister Kesehatan Ibu & Anak-Kesehatan Reproduksi, Fakultas Kedokteran UGM, Jl. Farmako Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta
Pemberian fortifikasi multi-mikronutrien berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan balita keluarga miskin
Mursalim1, Muhammad Juffrie2, Nenny Sri Mulyani2
Background : Underfives from poor communities are susceptible group that will unlikely have sufficient nutrition (micronutrient) meanwhile this micronutrient is essential for growth. Some studies show the supplementation of micronutrient has good effects to child growth. Therefore it is necessary to study the supply of fortified multi-micronutrient and its effect to growth of underfives from poor communities.
Objective : To identify the supply of fortified multi micronutrient and its effect to growth of underfives of 6-59 months from poor communities.
Method : The study was a pre-experiment that used a group pre test-post test design. Subject were underfives of 6-59 months from poor communities that got fortified multi micronutrient. The intervention of fortified multi micronutrient supply was given once a week (1 sachet/day) within 4 months. Data of family characteristics and identity of the subject were collected at the beginning of the study. Measurement of physical weight and height/length, consumption recall, collection of data on disease infection (acute respiratory tract and diarrhea) were carried out at the beginning and end of the study.
Result : The result of statistics test showed there was significant increase (p<0.05) in weight, height/length and nutrition status (z-score) to index of weight for height/length, height for age, and that there was significant descent to acute respiratory tract infection and diarrhea of underfives of 6-59 months from poor communities after the supply of fortified micronutrient containing vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, folate acid, vitamin C, D3, E, Fe and zink.
Conclusion : The supply of fortified multi micronutrient could increase weight, height/length and nutrition status (z-score), index of weight for height/length and index of weight for age and decreased of acute respiratory tract infection and diarrhea disease in underfives of 6-59 months from poor communities.
Key words: fortified multi micronutrient, growth of underfives, nutrient intake, infectious disease (acute respiratory tract infection and diarrhea)
1 Direktorat Bina Gizi, Kementerian Kesehatan RI, Jl. HR Rasuna Said Blok X5 Kav 4-9 Jakarta Selatan, email:
3 Instalasi Kesehatan Anak RSUP Dr. Sardjito, Jl. Kesehatan, Yogyakarta 55281
Obesitas dan hubungannya dengan polimorfisme gena promoter 5-HT2A, tekanan darah, profil lipid, kadar glukosa, dan malondialdehid
Siti Fatimah1, Apoina Kartini2
Background : Obesity among adults has risen significantly in the world-cutting across all ages, racial and ethnic groups and gender. The 5-HT2A receptor is crucially involved in regulation of body weight and the appetite. Disturbances in the distribution and or gene regulation of the postsynaptic 5-HT2A receptor are implicated in the pathophysiology of conditions such as obesity, coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, stroke dan some cancers
Objective : To test the association between obesity with polymorphism of promoter -1438G -> A 5-HT2A receptor gene, blood pressure, lipid profiles, levels of blood glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA).
Method : This cross-sectional study included thirty six unrelated obese young people (BMI > 30) recruited from populations in Yogyakarta and 36 controls with age matched with BMI < 25. Statistical differences between blood pressure, lipid profiles, glucose and MDA levels were assessed by t-test and genotypes by Chi square test.
Result : There were no significant difference in blood pressure lipid profile, level of glucose and MDA in obese group compared with control (p>0,05). Allele A and G frequency in obese group 25% and 75% respectively, and controls 22.2% and 77.8% respectively, and no significant difference in all two groups, but G allele had higher risk to obese than A allele.
Conclusion : These data indicated G allele was mild risk factor for obesity.
Key words : obesity, blood pressure, lipid profiles, 5-HT2A receptor
1 Bagian Biokimia Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, e-mail:
2 Bagian Histologi Dan Biologi Sel Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281
3 Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281
Kemampuan motorik kasar siswa sekolah dasar penderita obesitas
Isti Dwi Puspita Wati1, Woro Kushartanti2, Joko Susilo3
Background : Childhood is the period of rapid growth and development. Various aspects can affect problems in growth and development such as genetics, natural environment, and social economic status of the family, nutrition status, social and cultural environment. Inappropriate food intake can cause malnutrition in children, both undernourishment and over nourishment (obesity). Obesity is not good for the process of child growth and development because it distorts the process of metabolism and bring risks for cardiovascular diseases.
Objective : To identify gross motor ability of obese elementary school students at Yogyakarta Municipality and evaluate motor ability of elementary school students based on degree of obesity
Methods : The study was observational with cross sectional design. Subject of the study were 158 obese elementary school students at Yogyakarta Municipality. Subjects were screened and tested using fat caliper and their height and weight were measured. If they belonged to obese their gross motor ability was tested comprising throwing with target, flexibility long jump standing, squatting, push up, balance and speed running. Data were analyzed using Spearman correlation at CI95% (p<0.05).
Result : Gross motor ability of children has negative correlation with obesity (rrho= -0,465), so children with heavy obesity have the bad gross motor ability. However there was no relationship between ability of flexibility, standing long jump, balance, and speed running the mobility (sig > 0,05).
Conclusion : Child which progressively obesity will have a lower gross motor ability.
Key words : obese children, gross motor ability
1 Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Program Studi Pendidikan Jasmani Kesehatan dan Rekreasi, Universitas Tanjungpura, Jl. Ahmad Yani Pontianak 78124 Kalimantan Barat, email:
2 Fakultas Ilmu Olahraga Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Jl. Colombo, Karang Malang, Yogyakarta 55281
Pelaksanaan asuhan gizi terapi gizi medis (TGM) berpengaruh terhadap lama rawat inap
Ika Yuliati Chasbullah1, I Made Alit Gunawan2, R. Dwi Budiningsari3
Background : Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) is one of nutrition care models which focuses on integrated patient management involving active participation of doctors, nutritionists, nurses and other professions within the hospital nutrition care team. One benefit of MNT is the reducing of patients’ length of stay (LOS) as an indicator of hospital service quality. Bekasi Municipal Hospital has not implemented integrated nutrition care within a team. The result of monitoring and evaluation during the first quarter of 2006 showed the average of LOS for degenerative diseases patients was 5.97 days.
Objectives : To identify the influence of nutrition care implementation by using MNT approach to LOS at Bekasi Municipal Hospital.
Methods : The study was quaci-experimental which uses static-group comparison. Samples were patients hospitalized at internal medicine wards of (class) VIP, 1st, 2nd and 3rd class. Datas were obtained consisted of conventional nutrition care (CNC), MNT, and data of LOS. T-test and Mann Whitney statistical test were used to analyze the influence of types of nutrition care to LOS.
Results : LOS of patients with MNT care was 5.80 days. This was shorter than CNC and statistically significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion : There was a difference between LOS of samples with MNT and CNC. LOS of samples with MNT was shorter than CNC and statistically significant (p<0.05).
Key words : conventional nutrition care, medical nutrition therapy, length of stay
1 Instalasi Gizi Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Kota Bekasi, Jl. Pramuka no 55, Bekasi, Jawa Barat
2 Politeknik Kesehatan Kemenkes Yogyakarta Jurusan Gizi, Jl. Tata Bumi No 3, Banyuraden, Gamping, Sleman 55293, Yogyakarta
Ekstrak air daun Ceplikan (Ruellia tuberosa L) berpengaruh terhadap kadar SGOT, SGPT dan gambaran histologis hepar tikus DM
Fitri Ardiani1, Wiryatun Lestariana2, Emy Huriyati3
Background : Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder as indicated by hiperglycemia caused by insulin deficiency produced by pancreatic islet ß cell which triggers metabolic disorder of carbohydrate, protein and fat, and tends to cause complications. One of the complications is liver damage caused by DM which is probably due to lipid peroxydation, subsequent to free radical production. The common biochemistry signs of liver damage are increasing activities of some enzym such as transaminase pyruvat glutamate serum in the blood. Ruellia tuberosa L is a traditional plant and used by people as diabetic traditional drug. Flavonoid, saponin, zink as antioxidant can decreased of blood glucose in diabetic.
Objectives : The study aimed to identify the effect of Ruellia tuberosa L extract on glutamate oxaloacetate and glutamate pyruvat transaminases as well as liver histology of diabetic white mice (Rattus norvegicus).
Methods : The study was pure experimental that used a pre-post test control group design. The study used 30 male Rattus norvegicus. They were divided into 5 groups, each group consisting of 6 rats. Group I rats served as the normal control. Groups II to V consisted of rats with DM induced with alloxan 170 mg/kgBB subcutaneously. The experiment made was as followed. Group I served as control, group II was DM+aquades, group III was DM+Ruellia tuberosa L extract 1.6 mg/kgBB/day, group IV was DM+Ruellia tuberosa L extract 3.2 mg/kgBB/day, and group V was DM+Ruellia tuberosa L extract 6.4 mg/kgBB/day. Glutamate oxaloacetate and glutamate pyruvat transaminases was measured before beginning and end of the treatment. The blood was taken from sinus orbitalis. At day 30 (end of the study) the rats were sacrificed for their liver. Data of transaminase oxaloacetate glutamate serum and transaminase pyruvat glutamate serum level were analyzed using one way ANOVA. The result of liver histology was analyzed descriptively.
Results : The effect of Ruellia tuberosa L extract within 30 days of study could minimize level of transaminase oxaloacetate glutamate serum and transaminase pyruvat glutamate serum of DM rats. Maximal decreasing in extract 3,2 mg. Histologically there was no damage of the liver.
Conclusion : Ruellia tuberose L extract could minimize level of transaminase oxaloacetat glutamate serum and transaminase pyruvat glutamate serum of DM and liver histology is normal.
Key words : Ruellia tuberosa L extract, transaminase oxaloacetate glutamate serum (SGOT), transaminase pyruvat glutamate serum (SGPT), liver histology, rats, diabetes mellitus
1 Departemen Gizi Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Sumatera Utara, Jl. Universitas No 21 Kampus USU, Padang Bulan Medan 20155, e-mail:
2 Bagian Biokimia Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281